Jakobiec FA. Conjunctival Primary Acquired Melanosis: Is It Time for a New Terminology?. Am J Ophthalmol 2016;162:3-19.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review the diagnostic categories of a group of conditions referred to as "primary acquired melanosis." DESIGN: Literature review on the subject and proposal of an alternative diagnostic schema with histopathologic and immunohistochemical illustrations. METHODS: Standard hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections and immunohistochemical stains for MART-1, HMB-45, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF), and Ki-67 for calculating the proliferation index are illustrated. RESULTS: "Melanosis" is an inadequate and misleading term because it does not distinguish between conjunctival intraepithelial melanin overproduction ("hyperpigmentation") and intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation. It is recommended that "intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation" be adopted for histopathologic diagnosis. Atypical proliferations are characterized either by bloated dendritic melanocytes with enlarged cell components (dendrites, cell bodies, and nuclei) or by epithelioid melanocytes without dendrites. Atypical polygonal or epithelioid pagetoid cells may reach higher levels of the epithelium beyond the basal layer. Immunohistochemistry defines the degree of melanocytic proliferation or the cellular shape (dendritic or nondendritic) (MART-1, HMB-45) or identifies the melanocytic nuclei (MiTF). Intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation without atypia represents increased numbers of normal-appearing dendritic melanocytes (hyperplasia or early neoplasia) that generally remain confined to the basal/basement membrane region. Intraepithelial nonproliferative melanocytic pigmentation signifies the usually small number of conjunctival basal dendritic melanocytes that synthesize increased amounts of melanin that is transferred to surrounding keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: All pre- and postoperative biopsies of flat conjunctival melanocytic disorders should be evaluated immunohistochemically if there is any question regarding atypicality. This should lead to a clearer microscopic descriptive diagnosis that is predicated on an analysis of the participating cell types and their architectural patterns. This approach is conducive to a better appreciation of features indicating when to intervene therapeutically. An accurate early diagnosis should forestall unnecessary later surgery.

Shields PW, Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Yoon MK. Spitz nevus arising in the eyelid of a teenager. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(2):228-35.Abstract

A 16-year-old boy developed over a 2-month interval a lightly pigmented left upper eyelid lesion measuring 1.5 mm in greatest diameter that, when excised, microscopically was hypercellular and composed almost exclusively of nonpigmented epithelioid cells that created florid, large intraepidermal junctional nests and sheets and nests of subepidermal cells. The diagnosis was a Spitz nevus. HMB-45, MART-1, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were all positive and established the melanocytic nature of the benign tumor. The Ki-67 proliferation index (5%) and 2 mitoses/mm(2) were both low; p16 protein was immunohistochemically identified in the nevoid cells. We review the clinical, histopathologic, and other immunohistochemical features of this entity and provide a brief differential diagnosis (including separation from a Spitzoid melanoma). This is only the third eyelid Spitz nevus reported in the literature and is the most fully characterized immunohistochemically. At their present stage of development, contemporary immunohistochemical biomarkers, while providing supplemental information, nonetheless remain less than definitive in terms of reliably distinguishing benign from malignant Spitz lesions.

Patel AV, Lane AM, Morrison MA, Trofimov AV, Shih HA, Gragoudas ES, Kim IK. Visual Outcomes after Proton Beam Irradiation for Choroidal Melanomas Involving the Fovea. Ophthalmology 2016;123(2):369-77.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report visual outcomes in patients undergoing proton beam irradiation of tumors located within 1 disc diameter of the fovea. DESIGN: Retrospective review. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with choroidal melanoma involving the fovea treated with proton beam therapy between 1975 and 2009. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-one patients with choroidal melanomas located 1 disc diameter (DD) or less from the fovea and more than 1 DD away from the optic nerve were included in this study. In a subgroup of 203 of the patients with small and medium choroidal melanomas, the effect of a reduced dose of radiation, 50 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) versus 70 Gy (RBE), on visual outcomes was analyzed. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were performed to calculate cumulative rates of vision loss and to assess risk factors for vision loss, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity and radiation complications, which included radiation maculopathy, papillopathy, retinal detachment, and rubeosis, were assessed. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-one patients were included in this study with a mean follow-up time of 68.7 months. More than one-third of patients (35.5%) retained 20/200 or better vision 5 years after proton beam irradiation. For those patients with a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 or better, 16.2% of patients retained this level of vision 5 years after proton beam irradiation. Tumor height less than 5 mm and baseline visual acuity 20/40 or better were associated significantly with a better visual outcome (P < 0.001). More than two-thirds (70.4%) of patients receiving 50 Gy (RBE) and nearly half (45.1%) of patients receiving 70 Gy (RBE) retained 20/200 or better vision 5 years after treatment, but this difference was not significant. Approximately 20% of patients with these smaller macular tumors retained 20/40 vision or better 5 years after irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this retrospective analysis demonstrate that despite receiving a full dose of radiation to the fovea, many patients with choroidal melanoma with foveal involvement maintain useful vision. A radiation dose reduction from 70 to 50 Gy (RBE) did not seem to increase the proportion of patients who retain usable vision.

Contreras-Ruiz L, Mir FA, Turpie B, Krauss AH, Masli S. Sjögren's syndrome associated dry eye in a mouse model is ameliorated by topical application of integrin α4 antagonist GW559090. Exp Eye Res 2016;143:1-8.Abstract

Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease associated with inflammation of exocrine glands with clinical manifestations of dry eye and dry mouth. Dry eye in this disease involves inflammation of the ocular surface tissues - cornea and conjunctiva. While systemic blockade of adhesion molecules has been used to treat autoimmune diseases, the purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of topical application of an integrin α4 adhesion molecule antagonist in a mouse model of dry eye associated with Sjögren's syndrome. To assess this spontaneously developed ocular surface inflammation related to Sjögren's syndrome in TSP-1null mice (12 wks) was evaluated. Mice were treated with topical formulations containing 0.1% dexamethasone or 30 mg/ml GW559090 or vehicle control. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were assessed. Real-time PCR analysis was performed to assess expression of the inflammatory marker IL-1β in the cornea and Tbet and RORγt in the draining lymph nodes. Ocular surface inflammation was detectable in TSP-1null mice (≥12 wk old), which resulted in increased corneal fluorescein staining indicative of corneal barrier disruption and reduced conjunctival goblet cell density. These changes were accompanied by increased corneal expression of IL-1β as compared to WT controls and an altered balance of Th1 (Tbet) and Th17 (RORγt) markers in the draining lymph nodes. Topically applied dexamethasone and GW559090 significantly reduced corneal fluorescein staining compared to vehicle treatment (p = 0.023 and p < 0.001, respectively). This improved corneal barrier integrity upon adhesion molecule blockade was consistent with significantly reduced corneal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-1β compared to vehicle treated groups (p < 0.05 for both treatments). Significant improvement in goblet cell density was also noted in mice treated with 0.1% dexamethasone and GW559090 (p < 0.05 for both). We conclude that similar to topical dexamethasone, topically administered GW559090 successfully improved corneal barrier integrity and inflammation in an established ocular surface disease associated with Sjögren's syndrome.

Chen X, Bleier BS, Lefebvre DR, Lee NG. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: A Masquerader in Sino-Orbital Infections. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(5):374-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report 2 immunocompromised patients with sino-orbital necrotizing pseudomonas infections and review the literature. METHODS: This is a noncomparative, retrospective case series, and review. The clinical data of 2 patients with histopathologic and microbiologic diagnoses of pseudomonas sinus infections causing orbital cellulitis were obtained from medical records. A retrospective literature review was performed on all reported cases of periorbital pseudomonas infections. RESULTS: One patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome was noted to have orbital cellulitis with clear visualization of eschar in the middle turbinate on nasal endoscopy. A second patient also had orbital cellulitis with ophthalmoplegia and presence of eschar in the sinus. Both patients had some degree of erosion through the lamina papyracea found on orbital imaging and both had intact vision without optic neuropathy. Pseudomonas infection was confirmed in both cases with permanent histopathology and cultures from conservative sinus debridement. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudomonas sino-orbital infections must be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of eschar and orbital wall erosion especially when vision is preserved in immunocompromised individuals. This finding obviates the need for radical debridement including orbital exenteration, which can be indicated in cases of invasive fungal disease.

DeLoss KS, Le H-G, Gire A, Chiu GB, Jacobs DS, Carrasquillo KG. PROSE Treatment for Ocular Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease as a Clinical Network Expands. Eye Contact Lens 2016;42(4):262-6.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Keratoconjunctivitis sicca occurs in 40% to 90% of patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Ocular symptoms can have profound effects in both the visual function and quality of life of patients with GVHD. We report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with cGVHD as a clinical network expands. METHODS: We queried the BostonSight PROSE manufacturing database from January 2002 to December 2011. Patients treated for ocular cGVHD were reported by age, gender, year, and network site where the treatment was undertaken. The baseline and six-month follow-up scores of visual function using a standardized validated instrument, the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), were evaluated for a period in 2006 and again in 2010 after network expansion had occurred. RESULTS: A total of 407 patients with a male:female ratio of 226:181, mean age was 51 years with ocular cGVHD underwent PROSE treatment from January 2002 to December 2011. By 2011, 67% of all cases were treated at network clinics. Baseline characteristics of patients treated throughout the network in 2010 were similar to that of 2006 and 2010 cohorts from the main center. There was a significant improvement of 41 points (P<0.001) in composite NEI VFQ score among patients treated across the network in 2010, similar to the improvement of 30 points (P<0.001) seen among the patients treated at the main center in 2010. There was a trend toward lower baseline self-reported general health status (SRGHS) and VFQ scores among patients treated at network clinics, suggesting that expansion of the network allows treatment of sicker patients (lower general health status) or those more severely affected by ocular cGVHD. CONCLUSIONS: PROSE treatment of ocular cGVHD has increased in the last decade with the establishment of BostonSight network clinics across the United States. Patients treated at network clinics showed similar levels of baseline visual function and SRGHS, and achieved a similar high level of improvement in visual function as those treated at the main center. Patient-reported measures of functional status are useful in evaluating treatment options for patients with cGVHD. PROSE treatment has significant positive impact on the visual function of patients with ocular cGVHD regardless of whether the patient is treated at the main center or at a network site.

Ma KN, Thanos A, Chodosh J, Shah AS, Mantagos IS. A Novel Technique for Amniotic Membrane Transplantation in Patients with Acute Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Ocul Surf 2016;14(1):31-6.Abstract

Cryopreserved amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation is an emerging technique that is becoming the gold standard for the management of acute Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its more severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). We describe a novel surgical technique utilizing a single, large sheet of AM (5 x 10 cm) and a custom-made forniceal ring, which facilitates AM placement. Our technique is easy to use and minimizes suturing and manipulation of ocular tissues, resulting in decreased operative time. This technique may be applied in the management of multiple ocular surface disease processes, including chemical or thermal burns, severe ocular graft versus host disease (GVHD), and other autoimmune diseases.

Sarker-Nag A, Hutcheon AEK, Karamichos D. Mitochondrial Profile and Responses to TGF-β Ligands in Keratoconus. Curr Eye Res 2016;41(7):900-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: Keratoconus (KC) is a complex corneal dystrophy with multifactorial etiology. Previous studies have shown evidence of mitochondrial abnormalities in KC; however, the exact cause of these abnormalities remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify if transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) isoforms play a role in the regulation of mitochondrial proteins in human KC cells (HKC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and HKC were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks in three different conditions: (a) CONTROL: MEM + 10%FBS, (b) MEM + 10%FBS + TGF-β1 and (c) MEM + 10%FBS + TGF-β3. All samples were processed for mitochondrial damage analysis using real-time PCR. RESULTS: We quantified and analyzed 84 mitochondrial and five housekeeping genes in HCFs and HKCs. Our data showed that when TGF-β1 and/or TGF-β3 were compared with control in HCFs, nine genes were significantly different; however, no genes were significantly regulated by the TGF-β isoforms in HKCs. Significant differences were also seen in seven genes when HFCs were compared with HKCs, in all three conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data support the growing consensus that mitochondrial dysfunction is a key player in KC disease. These in vitro data show clear links between mitochondrial function and TGF-β isoforms, with TGF-β1 severely disrupting KC-mitochondrial function, while TGF-β3 maintained it, thus suggesting that TGF-β may play a role in KC-disease treatment.

MacIntosh PW, Jakobiec FA, Stagner A, Rashid A, Sutula FC, Yoon MK, Fay AM. Failed Cartilaginous Grafts in the Eyelid: A Retrospective Clinicopathological Analysis of 5 Cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(5):347-53.Abstract

PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical and histopathologic features of 5 failed autologous cartilaginous grafts to the lower eyelids and to analyze the reasons for these failures. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, the data collected included patient ages, reasons for and duration of cartilaginous graft implants, sources of cartilaginous grafts, and clinical and histopathologic findings at time of graft removal using hematoxylin and eosin, elastic, Alcian blue, and Masson trichrome staining for analysis of tissue alterations. RESULTS: Five cartilaginous, posterior lamellar lower eyelid grafts were complicated by eyelid thickening or retraction, graft extrusion, and entropion. Histopathologic findings included segmentation of the original single implant, stripped of its perichondrium, due to "kerfing," sometimes with overlapping of the segments and scar formation between the segments. In place of the perichondrium that had been removed during the preparation the graft implants, a fibrous pseudoperichondrial capsule had formed. Pyknotic nuclei in varying degrees were typically found in the center of the grafts, despite a high degree of preservation of the extracellular matrix (collagenous, elastic, and proteoglycan components). No evidence of inflammation, cartilaginous vascularization, or necrosis was identified in any graft. CONCLUSION: Despite minimal reactive processes, kerfing (partial thickness cuts made in the graft to increase its pliancy) may be partially responsible for graft migration, deformation, and surgical failure. The consequences were graft fragmentation and overlapping of the multiple fragments. Graft migration can be exacerbated if a posterior lamellar graft is used to correct an anterior lamellar deficiency. Interference with the overall architectural integrity of the graft and its extracellular matrix appears to play no role in failure, despite removal of the perichondrium. Mild to moderate degrees of chondrocytic dropout in the absence of necrosis and inflammation are probably attributable to the thick and coarsely textured collagen of the fibrous pseudoperichondrial capsule that may impede diffusion of nutrients into the center of the graft.

Pawlyk BS, Bulgakov OV, Sun X, Adamian M, Shu X, Smith AJ, Berson EL, Ali RR, Khani S, Wright AF, Sandberg MA, Li T. Photoreceptor rescue by an abbreviated human RPGR gene in a murine model of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. Gene Ther 2016;23(2):196-204.Abstract

The X-linked RP3 gene codes for the ciliary protein RPGR and accounts for over 10% of inherited retinal degenerations. The critical RPGR-ORF15 splice variant contains a highly repetitive purine-rich linker region that renders it unstable and difficult to adapt for gene therapy. To test the hypothesis that the precise length of the linker region is not critical for function, we evaluated whether adeno-associated virus-mediated replacement gene therapy with a human ORF15 variant containing in-frame shortening of the linker region could reconstitute RPGR function in vivo. We delivered human RPGR-ORF15 replacement genes with deletion of most (314 codons, 'short form') or 1/3 (126 codons, 'long form') of the linker region to Rpgr null mice. Human RPGR-ORF15 expression was detected post treatment with both forms of ORF15 transgenes. However, only the long form correctly localized to the connecting cilia and led to significant functional and morphological rescue of rods and cones. Thus the highly repetitive region of RPGR is functionally important but that moderate shortening of its length, which confers the advantage of added stability, preserves its function. These findings provide a theoretical basis for optimizing replacement gene design in clinical trials for X-linked RP3.

Lefebvre DR, Mandeville JT, Yonekawa Y, Arroyo JG, Torun N, Freitag SK. A Case Series and Review of Bisphosphonate-associated Orbital Inflammation. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;24(2):134-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the largest series of new cases to date of bisphosphate-associated orbital inflammation. METHODS: A retrospective case review of patients with orbital inflammation following treatment with systemic bisphosphonate. RESULTS: Six patients over an 18-month period (2 males, 4 females) with an average age of 62.2 years had onset of orbital inflammatory symptoms 1-11 days after intravenous bisphosphonate infusion or, in 1 case, 4 weeks after initiation of oral bisphosphonate therapy. Imaging revealed diffuse orbital involvement in 3 cases, isolated lateral rectus muscle involvement in 2 cases, and superior rectus-levator involvement in 1 case. Two patients' symptoms resolved spontaneously within 2 weeks, and 3 responded rapidly and completely to corticosteroid therapy. The 1 patient on oral bisphosphonate had a slower but complete response to corticosteroid treatment. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the association between acute orbital inflammation and recent treatment with systemic bisphosphonate medication.
Kammerdiener LL, Speiser JL, Aquavella JV, Harissi-Dagher M, Dohlman CH, Chodosh J, Ciolino JB. Protective effect of soft contact lenses after Boston keratoprosthesis. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(4):549-52.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between preoperative diagnosis, soft contact lens (SCL) retention and complications. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 92 adult patients (103 eyes) who received a Boston keratoprosthesis type I at the Massachusetts's Eye and Ear Infirmary or the Flaum Eye Institute. Records were reviewed for preoperative diagnosis, SCL retention and subsequent complications. Preoperative categories included 16 autoimmune (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, rheumatoid arthritis and uveitis), 9 chemical injury and 67 'other' (aniridia, postoperative infection, dystrophies, keratopathies) patients. RESULTS: 50% of the lenses had been lost the first time after about a year. A subset (n=17) experienced more than 2 SCL losses per year; this group is comprised of 1 patient with autoimmune diseases, 2 patients with chemical injuries and 14 patients with 'other' diseases. The preoperative diagnosis was not predictive of contact lens retention. However, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the absence of a contact lens was an independent risk factor for postoperative complications, such as corneal melts with or without aqueous humour leak/extrusion and infections. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of a contact lens after Boston keratoprosthesis implantation decreases the risk of postoperative complications; this has been clinically experienced by ophthalmologists, but never before has the benefit of contact lens use in this patient population been statistically documented.

Foster SC, Kothari S, Anesi SD, Vitale AT, Chu D, Metzinger JL, Cerón O. The Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation preferred practice patterns of uveitis management. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(1):1-17.Abstract

Ocular inflammatory disease is a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Uveitis encompasses a wide spectrum of pathology, both with respect to its etiology and the anatomic location within the eye. Inflammation can be confined to the eye and may also be seen systemically. The cornerstone of management of ocular inflammatory disease historically has been corticosteroids, which are invaluable in the immediate control of inflammation; however, corticosteroids are inappropriate for long-term use as they are associated with a wide array of toxic side effects. As we continue to learn more about the various etiologies and elucidate the basic science pathways and mechanisms of action that cause intraocular inflammation, new therapeutic approaches have evolved. They include employment of immunomodulatory agents (corticosteroid-sparing therapies) that have expanded our treatment options for these vision-threatening diseases. These pharmacologics provide therapy for ocular and systemic inflammation in an individualized, patient-tailored, stepladder approach with the ultimate goal of durable, corticosteroid-free remission. We review the preferred practice patterns of a tertiary care center specializing in ocular inflammatory disease.

Greiner JV. Long-Term (3 Year) Effects of a Single Thermal Pulsation System Treatment on Meibomian Gland Function and Dry Eye Symptoms. Eye Contact Lens 2016;42(2):99-107.Abstract

PURPOSE: The present study examined the long-term (3 years) effects of a single (12 min) thermal pulsation system (TPS) treatment on symptomatic patients with evaporative dry eye disease (DED) secondary to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). METHODS: In this prospective, cohort, observational, single-center study design, signs (meibomian gland secretion [MGS] scores and tear film breakup time [TBUT]) and symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness [SPEED] questionnaires) were determined in 20 patients (40 eyes) with MGD and dry eye symptoms at baseline (BL), 1 month, and 3 years post-TPS treatment using LipiFlow. RESULTS: Meibomian gland secretion scores increased from BL (4.5±0.8) to 1 month (12.0±1.1, P≤0.001). Improvement persisted at 3 years (18.4±1.4) relative to BL (P≤0.001). Meibomian gland secretion scores in all regions of the lower eyelid were improved over BL at 1 month (nasal [P≤0.001], central [P≤0.001], temporal [P≤0.01]) and 3 years (nasal [P≤0.001], central [P≤0.001], temporal [P≤0.001]). TBUT increased from BL (4.1±0.4) to 1 month (7.9±1.4, P≤0.05) but was not significantly different than BL at 3 years (4.5±0.6, P>0.05). The OSDI scores decreased from BL (26.0±4.6) to 1 month (14.7±4.3, P≤0.001) but returned to BL levels at 3 years (22.5±5.4, P>0.05). The SPEED scores decreased from BL (13.4±1.0) to 1 month (6.5±1.3, P≤0.001), and this improvement persisted at 3 years (9.5±1.6, P≤0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Thermal pulsation may be a uniquely efficacious treatment option for DED secondary to MGD in that a single 12-min procedure is associated with significant improvement in MGS and SPEED scores for up to 3 years.