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Szczotka-Flynn LB, Shovlin JP, Schnider CM, Caffery BE, Alfonso EC, Carnt NA, Chalmers RL, Collier S, Jacobs DS, Joslin CE, Kroken AR, Lakkis C, Pearlman E, Schein OD, Stapleton F, Tu E, Willcox MDP. American Academy of Optometry Microbial Keratitis Think Tank. Optom Vis Sci 2021;98(3):182-198.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: Think Tank 2019 affirmed that the rate of infection associated with contact lenses has not changed in several decades. Also, there is a trend toward more serious infections associated with Acanthamoeba and fungi. The growing use of contact lenses in children demands our attention with surveillance and case-control studies. PURPOSE: The American Academy of Optometry (AAO) gathered researchers and key opinion leaders from around the world to discuss contact lens-associated microbial keratitis at the 2019 AAO Annual Meeting. METHODS: Experts presented within four sessions. Session 1 covered the epidemiology of microbial keratitis, pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the role of lens care systems and storage cases in corneal disease. Session 2 covered nonbacterial forms of keratitis in contact lens wearers. Session 3 covered future needs, challenges, and research questions in relation to microbial keratitis in youth and myopia control, microbiome, antimicrobial surfaces, and genetic susceptibility. Session 4 covered compliance and communication imperatives. RESULTS: The absolute rate of microbial keratitis has remained very consistent for three decades despite new technologies, and extended wear significantly increases the risk. Improved oxygen delivery afforded by silicone hydrogel lenses has not impacted the rates, and although the introduction of daily disposable lenses has minimized the risk of severe disease, there is no consistent evidence that they have altered the overall rate of microbial keratitis. Overnight orthokeratology lenses may increase the risk of microbial keratitis, especially secondary to Acanthamoeba, in children. Compliance remains a concern and a significant risk factor for disease. New insights into host microbiome and genetic susceptibility may uncover new theories. More studies such as case-control designs suited for rare diseases and registries are needed. CONCLUSIONS: The first annual AAO Think Tank acknowledged that the risk of microbial keratitis has not decreased over decades, despite innovation. Important questions and research directions remain.
Reshef ER, Bleier BS, Freitag SK. The Endoscopic Transnasal Approach to Orbital Tumors: A Review. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):232-240.Abstract
Historically, surgical access to orbital tumors has required a transcutaneous, transconjunctival or transcranial approach. Resection of orbital tumors is notoriously challenging due to the surrounding dense network of critical structures in a confined bony cavity. Advances in endoscopic endonasal surgery, initially used for sinonasal and skull base conditions, have allowed for expansion of its applications beyond the sinorbital interface. In the past decade, the evolution of techniques has enabled a purely endoscopic, minimally invasive approach to medially located orbital pathology with good outcomes. With experience and multidisciplinary collaboration between orbit and rhinologic surgeons, this has expanded to allow for a safe and effective transnasal approach to nearly all regions of the orbit with or without assistance from the orbital side. This review summarizes the relevant anatomy, variations of surgical approaches, and literature regarding outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approach to orbital tumors.
Ong AY, Ng SM, Vedula SS, Friedman DS. Lens extraction for chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021;3:CD005555.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is characterized by a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) secondary to aqueous outflow obstruction, with relative pupillary block being the most common underlying mechanism. There is increasing evidence that lens extraction may relieve pupillary block and thereby improve IOP control. As such, comparing the effectiveness of lens extraction against other commonly used treatment modalities can help inform the decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of lens extraction compared with other interventions in the treatment of chronic PACG in people without previous acute angle-closure attacks. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, one other database, and two trials registers (December 2019). We also screened the reference lists of included studies and the Science Citation Index database. We had no date or language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing lens extraction with other treatment modalities for chronic PACG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs with 914 eyes. We obtained data for participants meeting our inclusion criteria for these studies (PACG only, no previous acute angle-closure attacks), resulting in 513 eyes included in this review. The participants were recruited from a diverse range of countries. We were unable to conduct meta-analyses due to different follow-up periods and insufficient data. One study compared phacoemulsification with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) as standard care. Participants in the phacoemulsification group were less likely to experience progression of visual field loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13 to 0.91; 216 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and required fewer IOP-lowering medications (mean difference [MD] -0.70, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.51; 263 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared with standard care at 12 months. Moderate certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later (MD -84.93, 95% CI -131.25 to -38.61; 106 eyes). There was little to no difference in health-related quality of life measures (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.24; 254 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and visual acuity (VA) (MD 2.03 ETDRS letter, 95% CI -0.77 to 4.84; 242 eyes) at 12 months, and no observable difference in mean IOP (MD -0.03mmHg, 95% CI -2.34 to 2.32; 257 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared to standard care. Irreversible loss of vision was observed in one participant in the phacoemulsification group, and three participants in standard care at 36 months (moderate-certainty evidence). One study (91 eyes) compared phacoemulsification with phaco-viscogonioplasty (phaco-VGP). Low-certainty evidence suggested that fewer IOP-lowering medications were needed at 12 months with phacoemulsification (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.05). Low-certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification may have improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later compared to phaco-VGP (angle grading MD -0.60, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.29; TISA500 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; TISA750 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; 91 eyes). Phacoemulsification may result in little to no difference in best corrected VA at 12 months (MD -0.01 log MAR units, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.08; low certainty evidence), and the evidence is very uncertain about its effect on IOP at 12 months (MD 0.50 mmHg, 95% CI -2.64 to 3.64; very low certainty evidence). Postoperative fibrin reaction was observed in two participants in the phacoemulsification group and four in the phaco-VGP group. Three participants in the phaco-VGP group experienced hyphema. No data were available for progression of visual field loss and quality of life measurements at 12 months. Two studies compared phacoemulsification with phaco-goniosynechialysis (phaco-GSL). Low-certainty evidence suggested that there may be little to no difference in mean IOP at 12 months (MD -0.12 mmHg, 95% CI -4.72 to 4.48; 1 study, 32 eyes) between the interventions. Phacoemulsification did not reduce the number of IOP-lowering medications compared to phaco-GSL at 12 months (MD -0.38, 95% CI -1.23 to 0.47; 1 study, 32 eyes; moderate certainty evidence). Three eyes in the phaco-GSL group developed hyphemas. No data were available at 12 months for progression of visual field loss, gonioscopic findings, visual acuity, and quality of life measures. Three studies compared phacoemulsification with combined phaco-trabeculectomy, but the data were only available for one study (63 eyes). In this study, low-certainty evidence suggested that there was little to no difference between groups in mean change in IOP from baseline (MD -0.60 mmHg, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.79), number of IOP-lowering medications at 12 months (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.42), and VA measured by the Snellen chart (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.12). Participants in the phacoemulsification group had fewer complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.04), and the phaco-trabeculectomy group required more IOP-lowering procedures (RR 5.81, 95% CI 1.41 to 23.88), but the evidence was very uncertain. No data were available for other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence showed that lens extraction has an advantage over LPI in treating chronic PACG with clear crystalline lenses over three years of follow-up; ultimately, the decision for intervention should be part of a shared decision-making process between the clinician and the patient. For people with chronic PACG and visually significant cataracts, low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with either viscogonioplasty or goniosynechialysis does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone. There was insufficient evidence to draw any meaningful conclusions regarding phacoemulsification versus trabeculectomy. Low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone, and may cause more complications instead. These conclusions only apply to short- to medium-term outcomes; studies with longer follow-up periods can help assess whether these effects persist in the long term.
Jurgens JA, Barry BJ, Lemire G, Chan W-M, Whitman MC, Shaaban S, Robson CD, MacKinnon S, England EM, McMillan HJ, Kelly C, Pratt BM, Pratt BM, O'Donnell-Luria A, MacArthur DG, Boycott KM, Hunter DG, Engle EC. Novel variants in TUBA1A cause congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles with or without malformations of cortical brain development. Eur J Hum Genet 2021;29(5):816-826.Abstract
Variants in multiple tubulin genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including malformations of cortical development (MCD) and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM). Distinct missense variants in the beta-tubulin encoding genes TUBB3 and TUBB2B cause MCD, CFEOM, or both, suggesting substitution-specific mechanisms. Variants in the alpha tubulin-encoding gene TUBA1A have been associated with MCD, but not with CFEOM. Using exome sequencing (ES) and genome sequencing (GS), we identified 3 unrelated probands with CFEOM who harbored novel heterozygous TUBA1A missense variants c.1216C>G, p.(His406Asp); c.467G>A, p.(Arg156His); and c.1193T>G, p.(Met398Arg). MRI revealed small oculomotor-innervated muscles and asymmetrical caudate heads and lateral ventricles with or without corpus callosal thinning. Two of the three probands had MCD. Mutated amino acid residues localize either to the longitudinal interface at which α and β tubulins heterodimerize (Met398, His406) or to the lateral interface at which tubulin protofilaments interact (Arg156), and His406 interacts with the motor domain of kinesin-1. This series of individuals supports TUBA1A variants as a cause of CFEOM and expands our knowledge of tubulinopathies.
Maturi RK, Glassman AR, Josic K, Antoszyk AN, Blodi BA, Jampol LM, Marcus DM, Martin DF, Melia M, Salehi-Had H, Stockdale CR, Punjabi OS, Sun JK, Sun JK. Effect of Intravitreous Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor vs Sham Treatment for Prevention of Vision-Threatening Complications of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Protocol W Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021;139(7):701-712.Abstract
Importance: The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for the management of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) without center-involved diabetic macular edema (CI-DME) has not been clearly established. Objective: To determine the efficacy of intravitreous aflibercept injections compared with sham treatment in preventing potentially vision-threatening complications in eyes with moderate to severe NPDR. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for this study were collected between January 15, 2016, and May 28, 2020, from the ongoing DRCR Retina Network Protocol W randomized clinical trial, conducted at 64 US and Canadian sites among 328 adults (399 eyes) with moderate to severe NPDR (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity level, 43-53), without CI-DME. Analyses followed the intent-to-treat principle. Interventions: Eyes were randomly assigned to 2.0 mg of aflibercept injections (n = 200) or sham (n = 199) given at baseline; 1, 2, and 4 months; and every 4 months through 2 years. Between 2 and 4 years, treatment was deferred if the eye had mild NPDR or better. Aflibercept was administered in both groups if CI-DME with vision loss (≥10 letters at 1 visit or 5-9 letters at 2 consecutive visits) or high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) developed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Development of CI-DME with vision loss or PDR through May 2020, when the last 2-year visit was completed. Results: Among the 328 participants (57.6% men [230 of 399 eyes]; mean [SD] age, 56 [11] years), the 2-year cumulative probability of developing CI-DME with vision loss or PDR was 16.3% with aflibercept vs 43.5% with sham. The overall hazard ratio for either outcome was 0.32 (97.5% CI, 0.21-0.50; P < .001), favoring aflibercept. The 2-year cumulative probability of developing PDR was 13.5% in the aflibercept group vs 33.2% in the sham group, and the 2-year cumulative probability of developing CI-DME with vision loss was 4.1% in the aflibercept group vs 14.8% in the sham group. The mean (SD) change in visual acuity from baseline to 2 years was -0.9 (5.8) letters with aflibercept and -2.0 (6.1) letters with sham (adjusted mean difference, 0.5 letters [97.5% CI, -1.0 to 1.9 letters]; P = .47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, among eyes with moderate to severe NPDR, the proportion of eyes that developed PDR or vision-reducing CI-DME was lower with periodic aflibercept compared with sham treatment. However, through 2 years, preventive treatment did not confer visual acuity benefit compared with observation plus treatment with aflibercept only after development of PDR or vision-reducing CI-DME. The 4-year results will be important to assess longer-term visual acuity outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02634333.
Falcone MM, Hunter DG, Gaier ED. Emerging therapies for amblyopia. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):282-288.Abstract
Traditional therapies to treat amblyopia, such as optical correction or occlusion/penalization of the non-amblyopic eye, are efficacious but are not without limitations such as poor adherence and decreased success with increasing age. Recently, there has been an interest in new amblyopia therapies, some using binocular techniques, through a variety of platforms including video games, movies, and virtual reality. Overall, available efficacy results for these treatments are highly variable.
Cohen DA, Gise R, Gaier ED. Serum Biomarkers in Neuro-Ophthalmology: When to Test. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):322-328.Abstract
Discovery and characterization of serologic biomarkers has revolutionized the diagnostic framework of systemic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neuro-ophthalmic diseases. Expanding recognition of the multiple ocular and visual manifestations of these conditions highlights the important role of the referring provider in identifying potential cases. Increasing ease of access to serologic testing also enables these practitioners to initiate the diagnostic work-up in suspected cases. We aimed to provide an update on the current knowledge surrounding and use of relevant autoimmune biomarkers by correlating specific clinical neuro-ophthalmic manifestations with autoantibody biomarkers. The utility of select biomarkers for myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-IgG-associated disorder, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, anti-collapsin-response mediator protein-5 optic neuropathy, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-IgG-associated disease are discussed with particular focus on the clinical contexts in which to consider testing.
Collins ME, Guo X, Mudie LI, Slavin RE, Madden N, Chang D, Owoeye J, Repka MX, Friedman DS. Baseline vision results from the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study. Can J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We describe the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study, report baseline ocular findings, and explore the feasibility of eye examinations in the school setting. DESIGN: Prospective, school-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Students in second and third grades. METHODS: Baseline eye examinations, including near and distance presenting visual acuity (VA), stereopsis, ocular alignment, dilated retinal examination, and cycloplegic refraction, were performed in 12 Baltimore public schools during the 2014-15 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presenting VA, prevalence of refractive error, and other ocular findings. RESULTS: Among the 1054 eligible students, 321 participated. There were 271 (84.4%) African American and 186 (57.9%) female students; mean age was 7.9 ± 0.8 years. Cycloplegia was achieved in 308. The mean presenting distance and near VA was 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range -0.1 to 1.5) and 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range 0.0-1.6) in the better-seeing eye, respectively. The most common ocular findings were +1.00 diopter (D) or greater hyperopia (34.7%), -0.50 D or greater myopia (29.5%), 1.00 D or greater astigmatism (23.4%), and convergence insufficiency (7.2%). Thirty-seven (11.5%) children needed referral to an eye care provider; 10% of students required glasses full-time. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the majority of second and third grade students in this study have good VA and minimal refractive error, 1 in 9 have an ocular finding necessitating further evaluation. It was feasible to conduct cycloplegic eye examinations in the school setting.
Jacobs DS, Carrasquillo KG, Cottrell PD, Fernández-Velázquez FJ, Gil-Cazorla R, Jalbert I, Pucker AD, Riccobono K, Robertson DM, Szczotka-Flynn L, Speedwell L, Stapleton F. CLEAR - Medical use of contact lenses. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2021;44(2):289-329.Abstract
The medical use of contact lenses is a solution for many complex ocular conditions, including high refractive error, irregular astigmatism, primary and secondary corneal ectasia, disfiguring disease, and ocular surface disease. The development of highly oxygen permeable soft and rigid materials has extended the suitability of contact lenses for such applications. There is consistent evidence that bandage soft contact lenses, particularly silicone hydrogel lenses, improve epithelial healing and reduce pain in persistent epithelial defects, after trauma or surgery, and in corneal dystrophies. Drug delivery applications of contact lens hold promise for improving topical therapy. Modern scleral lens practice has achieved great success for both visual rehabilitation and therapeutic applications, including those requiring retention of a tear reservoir or protection from an adverse environment. This report offers a practical and relevant summary of the current evidence for the medical use of contact lenses for all eye care professionals including optometrists, ophthalmologists, opticians, and orthoptists. Topics covered include indications for use in both acute and chronic conditions, lens selection, patient selection, wear and care regimens, and recommended aftercare schedules. Prevention, presentation, and management of complications of medical use are reviewed.
Shanbhag SS, Shih G, Bispo PJM, Chodosh J, Jacobs DS, Saeed HN. Diphtheroids as Corneal Pathogens in Chronic Ocular Surface Disease in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Cornea 2021;40(6):774-779.Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize diphtheroid corneal infections in eyes in the chronic phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). METHODS: Observational case series. RESULTS: Four eyes of 3 patients were included in this review. Each eye presented with persistent corneal epithelial defect with corneal thinning in the chronic phase of SJS/TEN. None of the epithelial defects were associated with stromal infiltration. The corneas were cultured at the time of workup of persistent epithelial defect (3 eyes) or at time of tectonic penetrating keratoplasty after perforation (1 eye). Cultures yielded abundant growth of Corynebacterium spp., including Corynebacterium jeikeium (n = 2), Corynebacterium glucuronolyticum (n = 1), and a multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum isolate (n = 1). The ocular surface was stabilized with surgical intervention (1 eye) or with introduction of fortified topical antibiotic based on laboratory identification and susceptibility testing of the isolated organisms (3 eyes). Numerous risk factors for microbial keratitis were present in all 4 eyes. CONCLUSIONS: In eyes with a persistent corneal epithelial defect in the chronic phase of SJS/TEN, even in the absence of an infiltrate, corneal culture should be undertaken. Recognition and treatment of Corynebacterium spp. as opportunistic pathogens may lead to favorable outcomes in cases of clinically sterile ulceration during the chronic phase of SJS/TEN.
Zebardast N, Sekimitsu S, Wang J, Elze T, Gharahkhani P, Cole BS, Lin MM, Segrè AV, Wiggs JL, Wiggs JL. Characteristics of p.Gln368Ter Myocilin Variant and Influence of Polygenic Risk on Glaucoma Penetrance in the UK Biobank. Ophthalmology 2021;128(9):1300-1311.Abstract
PURPOSE: MYOC (myocilin) mutations account for 3% to 5% of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases. We aimed to understand the true population-wide penetrance and characteristics of glaucoma among individuals with the most common MYOC variant (p.Gln368Ter) and the impact of a POAG polygenic risk score (PRS) in this population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with the p.Gln368Ter variant among 77 959 UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs (FPs). METHODS: A genome-wide POAG PRS was computed, and 2 masked graders reviewed FPs for disc-defined glaucoma (DDG). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Penetrance of glaucoma. RESULTS: Two hundred individuals carried the p.Gln368Ter heterozygous genotype, and 177 had gradable FPs. One hundred thirty-two showed no evidence of glaucoma, 45 (25.4%) had probable/definite glaucoma in at least 1 eye, and 19 (10.7%) had bilateral glaucoma. No differences were found in age, race/ethnicity, or gender among groups (P > 0.05). Of those with DDG, 31% self-reported or had International Classification of Diseases codes for glaucoma, whereas 69% were undiagnosed. Those with DDG had higher medication-adjusted cornea-corrected intraocular pressure (IOPcc) (P < 0.001) vs. those without glaucoma. This difference in IOPcc was larger in those with DDG with a prior glaucoma diagnosis versus those not diagnosed (P < 0.001). Most p.Gln368Ter carriers showed IOP in the normal range (≤21 mmHg), although this proportion was lower in those with DDG (P < 0.02) and those with prior glaucoma diagnosis (P < 0.03). Prevalence of DDG increased with each decile of POAG PRS. Individuals with DDG demonstrated significantly higher PRS compared with those without glaucoma (0.37 ± 0.97 vs. 0.01 ± 0.90; P = 0.03). Of those with DDG, individuals with a prior diagnosis of glaucoma had higher PRS compared with undiagnosed individuals (1.31 ± 0.64 vs. 0.00 ± 0.81; P < 0.001) and 27.5 times (95% confidence interval, 2.5-306.6) adjusted odds of being in the top decile of PRS for POAG. CONCLUSIONS: One in 4 individuals with the MYOC p.Gln368Ter mutation demonstrated evidence of glaucoma, a substantially higher penetrance than previously estimated, with 69% of cases undetected. A large portion of p.Gln368Ter carriers, including those with DDG, have IOP in the normal range, despite similar age. Polygenic risk score increases disease penetrance and severity, supporting the usefulness of PRS in risk stratification among MYOC p.Gln368Ter carriers.
Jacoba CMP, Celi LA, Silva PS. Biomarkers for Progression in Diabetic Retinopathy: Expanding Personalized Medicine through Integration of AI with Electronic Health Records. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):250-257.Abstract
The goal of personalized diabetes eye care is to accurately predict in real-time the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) progression and visual loss. The use of electronic health records (EHR) provides a platform for artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that predict DR progression to be incorporated into clinical decision-making. By implementing an algorithm on data points from each patient, their risk for retinopathy progression and visual loss can be modeled, allowing them to receive timely treatment. Data can guide algorithms to create models for disease and treatment that may pave the way for more personalized care. Currently, there exist numerous challenges that need to be addressed before reliably building and deploying AI algorithms, including issues with data quality, privacy, intellectual property, and informed consent.
Klionsky DJ, et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition) [Internet]. Autophagy 2021;:1-382. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
Lains I, Pundlik SJ, Nigalye A, Katz R, Luo G, Kim IK, Vavvas DG, Miller JW, Miller JB, Husain D. BASELINE PREDICTORS ASSOCIATED WITH 3-YEAR CHANGES IN DARK ADAPTATION IN AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION. Retina 2021;41(10):2098-2105.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between baseline age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and disease stage, as well as optical coherence tomography features seen in AMD, with 3-year changes in dark adaptation (DA). METHODS: Prospective longitudinal study including patients with AMD and a comparison group (n = 42 eyes, 27 patients). At baseline and 3 years, we obtained color fundus photographs, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and rod-mediated DA (20 minutes protocol). Multilevel mixed-effect models were used for analyses, with changes in rod intercept time at 3 years as the primary outcome. As some eyes (n = 11) reached the DA testing ceiling value at baseline, we used 3-year changes in area under the DA curve as an additional outcome. RESULTS: Baseline AMD, AMD stage, and hyperreflective foci on optical coherence tomography were associated with larger changes in rod intercept time at 3 years. When change in area under the DA curve was used as an outcome, in addition to these features, the presence of retinal atrophy and drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment had significant associations. New subretinal drusenoid deposits at 3 years were also associated with more pronounced changes in rod intercept time and area under the DA curve. CONCLUSION: Specific optical coherence tomography features are associated with DA impairments over time, which supports that structural changes predict functional loss over 3 years.
Serafino M, Granet DB, Kushner BJ, Dagi LR, Kekunnaya R, Nucci P, Kreatsoulas C. Definition of successful outcomes after surgery for each type of strabismus: a Delphi study. J AAPOS 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Delphi process has been widely used to delineate guidelines for the treatment of disorders for which there is little or no evidence in the published literature. The purpose of this study was to use the Delphi process to identify areas of consensus and disagreement on the definition of success after surgery for each type of strabismus. METHODS: Two rounds of electronic questionnaires were sent to 28 members of the Strabismus Success Definition Delphi Study Group. For the first round, responses to 70 questions were captured as agree (= 1) and disagree (= 2). For round 2, a total of 89 questions were captured on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Consensus was determined a priori at 85%. RESULTS: In both the first and second rounds, inter-rater agreement of 85% consensus was reached for only 20% of questions. Intra-rater agreement per question was low, with κ values ranging from -0.11 to 0.62. Intra-rater agreement was also low among themes, ranging from poor to fair agreement: κ = 0.25 for motor, κ = 0.28 for sensory, and κ = 0.35 for follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights consensus areas that could be considered by researchers in designing studies and identifies areas where lack of consensus indicates that further research is needed.

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