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Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Gateman T, Whitecross S, Whitman MC. First Visit Characteristics Associated with Future Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia. J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2022;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: Identify demographic and clinical characteristics at the first presentation associated with later having surgery for intermittent exotropia (IXT). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 228 children with IXT and 5+ years of follow-up. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records. A total 97 participants who underwent surgery during follow-up were compared to 131 participants who did not. Best subset regression was used to identify first visit variables associated with later having strabismus surgery. Surgery was then regressed on the selected variables using logistic models. RESULTS: Age and control were the only first visit variables significantly associated with having surgery for IXT. Notably, neither angle of deviation nor stereopsis were associated with later surgery. In an adjusted logistic model, each one-month increase in age at presentation was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds of having surgery (OR = 0.991, 95% CI: 0.982-0.999, P = .04). Children with poor control at initial visit had almost five times greater odds of having surgery than those with good control (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 2.31-10.98, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age and control of IXT are important factors at presentation associated with future surgical intervention for IXT. The magnitude of deviation and stereopsis was not significantly associated with future surgical treatment for IXT.
Liou VD, Yoon MK, Maher M, Chwalisz BK. Orbital Inflammation in Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: To present 2 patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease with unilateral orbital inflammation, optic nerve head edema, and abnormalities of the optic nerve and nerve sheath on imaging. We review the most current literature on this important and uncommon clinical phenotype. METHODS: A case report of 2 patients and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature on orbital inflammation in MOG antibody-associated disease (MOG-AD). RESULTS: Two patients presented with decreased vision and unilateral orbital inflammation. Both had optic nerve head edema and abnormalities of the optic nerve and nerve sheath on imaging. The patients were treated with immunosuppressants and had improvement of vision changes as well as their orbital inflammatory signs. MOG antibody was positive in high titers in both patients. Only 3 other cases of orbital inflammation associated with MOG antibody have been described. In all cases, orbital signs responded rapidly to intravenous methylprednisolone, but the improvement in visual acuity was variable and less robust. CONCLUSION: Orbital inflammation is a unique and underrecognized phenotype of MOG-AD with only a few reports in the literature. In patients who present with vision loss and orbital inflammation, MOG-AD should be considered in the differential.
Aboobakar IF, Wiggs JL. The genetics of glaucoma: Disease associations, personalised risk assessment and therapeutic opportunities-A review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022;50(2):143-162.Abstract
Glaucoma refers to a heterogenous group of disorders characterised by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and associated visual field loss. Both early-onset and adult-onset forms of the disease have a strong genetic component. Here, we summarise the known genetic associations for various forms of glaucoma and the possible functional roles for these genes in disease pathogenesis. We also discuss efforts to translate genetic knowledge into clinical practice, including gene-based tests for disease diagnosis and risk-stratification as well as gene-based therapies.
Lin JB, Halawa OA, Husain D, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. Dyslipidemia in age-related macular degeneration. Eye (Lond) 2022;36(2):312-318.Abstract
Lipid-rich drusen are the sine qua non of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in older adults in the developed world. Efforts directed at uncovering effective therapeutic strategies have led to the hypothesis that altered lipid metabolism may play a pathogenic role in AMD. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that: (1) drusen, the hallmark histopathologic feature of AMD, are composed of lipids, (2) polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid homeostasis are associated with increased odds of AMD, (3) metabolomics studies show that patients with AMD have alterations in metabolites from lipid pathways, and (4) alterations in serum lipid profiles as a reflection of systemic dyslipidemia are associated with AMD. There is strong evidence that statins, which are well described for treating dyslipidemia and reducing risk associated with cardiovascular disease, may have a role for treating certain cohorts of AMD patients, but this has yet to be conclusively proven. Of interest, the specific changes in serum lipoprotein profiles associated with decreased cardiovascular risk (i.e., high HDL levels) have been shown in some studies to be associated with increased risk of AMD. In this review, we highlight the evidence that supports a role for altered lipid metabolism in AMD and provide our perspective regarding the remaining questions that need to be addressed before lipid-based therapies can emerge for specific cohorts of AMD patients.
Araujo-Alves AV, Kraychete GB, Gilmore MS, Barros EM, Giambiagi-deMarval M. shsA: A novel orthologous of sasX/sesI virulence genes is detected in Staphylococcus haemolyticus Brazilian strains. Infect Genet Evol 2022;97:105189.Abstract
The surface protein SasX, has a key role in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and pathogenesis, and has been associated with the epidemic success of some MRSA clones. To date, only one SasX homologous protein, named SesI, has been described in Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this work, we analyze the occurrence of the sasX gene and its genetic environment in Staphylococcus haemolyticus S. haemolyticus clinical strains (n = 62) were screened for the presence of the sasX gene and its carrier, the prophage Φ SPβ-like. A deep characterization was done in one strain (MD43), through which we determined the complete nucleotide sequence for the S. haemolitycus sasX-like gene. Whole genome sequencing of strain MD43 was performed, and the gene, termed here because of its unique attributes, shsA, was mapped to the Φ SPβ-like prophage sequence. The shsA gene was detected in 33 out of 62 strains showing an average identity of 92 and 96% with the sasX and sesI genes and at the amino acid level, 88% identity with SasX and 92% identity with SesI. The ~124Kb Φ SPβ-like prophage sequence showed a largely intact prophage compared to its counterpart in S. epidermidis strain RP62A, including the sesI insertion site. In conclusion, we identified a new sasX ortholog in S. haemolyticus (shsA). Its horizontal spread from this reservoir could represent an emergent threat in healthcare facilities since so far, no S. aureus sasX+ strains have been reported in Brazil.
Argüeso P. Human ocular mucins: The endowed guardians of sight. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022;180:114074.Abstract
Mucins are an ancient group of glycoproteins that provide viscoelastic, lubricating and hydration properties to fluids bathing wet surfaced epithelia. They are involved in the protection of underlying tissues by forming a barrier with selective permeability properties. The expression, processing and spatial distribution of mucins are often determined by organ-specific requirements that in the eye involve protecting against environmental insult while allowing the passage of light. The human ocular surface epithelia have evolved to produce an extremely thin and watery tear film containing a distinct soluble mucin product secreted by goblet cells outside the visual axis. The adaptation to the ocular environment is notably evidenced by the significant contribution of transmembrane mucins to the tear film, where they can occupy up to one-quarter of its total thickness. This article reviews the tissue-specific properties of human ocular mucins, methods of isolation and detection, and current approaches to model mucin systems recapitulating the human ocular surface mucosa. This knowledge forms the fundamental basis to develop applications with a promising biological and clinical impact.
Roldan AM, De Arrigunaga S, Ciolino JB. Effect of Autologous Serum Eye Drops on Corneal Haze after Corneal Cross-linking. Optom Vis Sci 2022;99(2):95-100.Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: Corneal haze remains a frequent post-operative finding in patients undergoing corneal cross-linking. It has been shown that autologous serum tears promote epithelial healing and reduce post-operative pain; however, the role in the prevention of corneal haze has not been reported. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the effect of autologous serum tears versus preservative-free artificial tears on the prevention and resolution of post-cross-linking corneal haze. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a sample population from one surgeon at a tertiary eye center from 2016 to 2019. Seventy-six eyes of consecutive patients who underwent cross-linking were included. Records were reviewed for corneal Scheimpflug densitometry values and maximum keratometry, epithelial healing time, and the use of either autologous serum tears or preservative-free artificial tears. Corneal densitometry values, expressed in standardized grayscale units (GSU), were recorded for the anterior 150-μm corneal stroma and in the 0.0 to 2.0 mm and 2.0 to 6.0 mm zones. RESULTS: Forty-four eyes received autologous serum tears, whereas 32 eyes received preservative-free artificial tears. The baseline GSU of the anterior stromal 0 to 2 mm annulus and the 2 to 6 mm annulus did not significantly differ between groups (P = .50 and P = .40, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase in mean GSU for both anterior 0 to 2 mm and 2 to 6 mm zones between baseline and 1 month (P < .001) and 3 months (P < .001). When comparing the two groups, no statistically significant difference was found post-operatively between the mean GSU at 1 month for the anterior 0 to 2 mm (P = .38) nor the 2 to 6 mm zone (P = .12), or for the third month (P = .60 and P = .44, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Using Scheimpflug densitometry, we did not find a significant difference in the post-cross-linking corneal haze at 1 and 3 post-operative months between patients who use autologous serum tears and those who use preservative-free artificial tears.
Guzman Aparicio MA, Chen TC. New views on three-dimensional imaging technologies for glaucoma: an overview. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(2):103-111.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on three-dimensional (3D) technological advances in ophthalmology, the quantitative methods associated with this, and their improved ability to help detect glaucoma disease progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements in measuring glaucomatous structural changes are the result of dual innovations in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology and in associated quantitative software. SUMMARY: Compared with two-dimensional (2D) OCT parameters, newer 3D parameters provide more data and fewer artifacts.
Collantes ERA, Delfin MS, Fan BJ, Torregosa JMR, Siguan-Bell C, de Florcruz NVG, Martinez JMD, Masna-Hidalgo BJ, Guzman VPT, Anotado-Flores JF, Levina FD, Hernandez SRC, Collantes AA, Sibulo MC, Rong SS, Wiggs JL. EFEMP1 rare variants cause familial juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma. Hum Mutat 2022;43(2):240-252.Abstract
Juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a severe type of glaucoma with onset before age 40 and dominant inheritance. Using exome sequencing we identified 3 independent families from the Philippines with novel EFEMP1 variants (c.238A>T, p.Asn80Tyr; c.1480T>C, p.Ter494Glnext*29; and c.1429C>T, p.Arg477Cys) co-segregating with disease. Affected variant carriers (N = 34) exhibited severe disease with average age of onset of 16 years and with 76% developing blindness. To investigate functional effects, we transfected COS7 cells with vectors expressing the three novel EFEMP1 variants and showed that all three variants found in JOAG patients caused significant intracellular protein aggregation and retention compared to wild type and also compared to EFEMP1 variants associated with other ocular phenotypes including an early-onset form of macular degeneration, Malattia Leventinese/Doyne's Honeycomb retinal dystrophy. These results suggest that rare EFEMP1 coding variants can cause JOAG through a mechanism involving protein aggregation and retention, and that the extent of intracellular retention correlates with disease phenotype. This is the first report of EFEMP1 variants causing JOAG, expanding the EFEMP1 disease spectrum. Our results suggest that EFEMP1 mutations appear to be a relatively common cause of JOAG in Filipino families, an ethnically diverse population.
Gnanaguru G, Mackey A, Choi EY, Arta A, Rossato FA, Gero TW, Urquhart AJ, Scott DA, D'Amore PA, Ng YSE. Discovery of sterically-hindered phenol compounds with potent cytoprotective activities against ox-LDL-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell death as a potential pharmacotherapy. Free Radic Biol Med 2022;178:360-368.Abstract
Late-stage dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or geographic atrophy (GA) is an irreversible blinding condition characterized by degeneration of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the associated photoreceptors. Clinical and genetic evidence supports a role for dysfunctional lipid processing and accumulation of harmful oxidized lipids in the pathogenesis of GA. Using an oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced RPE death assay, we screened and identified sterically-hindered phenol compounds with potent protective activities for RPE. The phenol-containing PPARγ agonist, troglitazone, protected against ox-LDL-induced RPE cell death, whereas other more potent PPARγ agonists did not protect RPE cells. Knockdown of PPARγ did not affect the protective activity of troglitazone in RPE, confirming the protective function is not due to the thiazolidine (TZD) group of troglitazone. Prototypical hindered phenol trolox and its analogs potently protected against ox-LDL-induced RPE cell death whereas potent antioxidants without the phenol group failed to protect RPE. Hindered phenols preserved lysosomal integrity against ox-LDL-induced damage and FITC-labeled trolox was localized to the lysosomes in RPE cells. Analogs of trolox inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induced by ox-LDL uptake in a dose-dependent fashion and were effective at sub-micromolar concentrations. Treatment with trolox analog 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-chromanol (PMC) significantly induced the expression of the lysosomal protein NPC-1 and reduced intracellular cholesterol level upon ox-LDL uptake. Our data indicate that the lysosomal-localized hindered phenols are uniquely potent in protecting the RPE against the toxic effects of ox-LDL, and may represent a novel pharmacotherapy to preserve the vision in patients with GA.
Kenyon KR. Comment on "Cornea Classic Article: Kim JC and Tseng SCG: Transplantation of Preserved Amniotic Membrane for Surface Reconstruction in Severely Damaged Rabbit Corneas (Cornea 1995;14:473-484)". Cornea 2022;41(2):135-136.Abstract
ABSTRACT: Following identification of limbal stem cells, efforts have been devoted to restore and/or replace these essential progenitors of the corneal epithelium. Limbal stem cell deficiency, commonly a consequence of ocular chemical injury, results in clinically compromised vision consequent to corneal conjunctivalization. The insight of Kim and Tseng provided experimental proof of the concept that even in the presence of total limbal stem cell deficiency, amnion membrane overlay grafts can promote limbal recovery as a means of ocular surface reconstruction.
Lužnik Marzidovšek Z, Blanco T, Sun Z, Alemi H, Ortiz G, Nakagawa H, Chauhan SK, Taylor AW, Jurkunas UV, Yin J, Dana R. The Neuropeptide Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Is Critical for Corneal Endothelial Cell Protection and Graft Survival after Transplantation. Am J Pathol 2022;192(2):270-280.Abstract
Corneal transplantation is the most common form of tissue transplantation. The success of corneal transplantation mainly relies on the integrity of corneal endothelial cells (CEnCs), which maintain tissue transparency by pumping out excess water from the cornea. After transplantation, the rate of CEnC loss far exceeds that seen with normal aging, which can threaten sight. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a neuropeptide that is constitutively found in the aqueous humor with both cytoprotective and immunomodulatory effects. The curent study found high expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), the receptor for α-MSH, on CEnCs. The effect of α-MSH/MC1R signaling on endothelial function and allograft survival in vitro and in vivo was investigated using MC1R signaling-deficient mice (Mc1re/e mice with a nonfunctional MC1R). Herein, the results indicate that in addition to its well-known immunomodulatory effect, α-MSH has cytoprotective effects on CEnCs after corneal transplantation, and the loss of MC1R signaling significantly decreases long-term graft survival in vivo. In conclusion, α-MSH/MC1R signaling is critical for CEnC function and graft survival after corneal transplantation.

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