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Silva PS, Cavallerano JD, Haddad NMN, Kwak H, Dyer KH, Omar AF, Shikari H, Aiello LM, Sun JK, Aiello LP. Peripheral Lesions Identified on Ultrawide Field Imaging Predict Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy Progression over 4Years. Ophthalmology 2015;122(5):949-56.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether peripheral diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions identified on ultrawide field (UWF) imaging are associated with increased DR progression. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred eyes of 100 participants previously enrolled in a comparative instrument validation study. METHODS: Baseline mydriatic 7-standard field Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) photographs and UWF images were obtained. On UWF images, DR lesions with a greater extent outside versus inside standard ETDRS fields were defined as predominantly peripheral lesions (PPLs). Follow-up ETDRS photographs were obtained 4.2±0.3 years after baseline. Baseline and follow-up DR severity were graded from ETDRS photographs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of 2-step or more progression and progression to proliferative DR (PDR) in eyes with PPLs compared with eyes without PPLs identified on UWF imaging at baseline. RESULTS: In eyes without PDR (n = 109) at baseline, 56 (51%) had at least 1 field with PPLs and 43 (39%) had DR progression. Compared with eyes without PPLs, eyes with PPLs had a 3.2-fold increased risk of 2-step or more DR progression (6 [11%] vs. 19 [34%]; P = 0.005) and a 4.7-fold increased risk for progression to PDR (3 [6%] vs. 14 [25%]; P = 0.005). These findings remained statistically significant after adjusting for gender, diabetes type, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, and baseline DR severity. Increasing extent of fields with PPLs increased the risk for 2-step or more DR progression (P = 0.004) and progression to PDR (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Presence and increasing extent of PPLs were associated with increased risk of DR progression over 4 years, independent of baseline DR severity and HbA1c levels. Increasing extent of PPLs substantially increased the risk of DR progression and progression to PDR, especially with less severe DR at baseline. These findings demonstrate that detailed peripheral retinal evaluation provides important information that is necessary to assess completely the risk of DR progression.

Kekunnaya R, Kraft S, Rao VB, Velez FG, Sachdeva V, Hunter DG. Surgical management of strabismus in Duane retraction syndrome. J AAPOS 2015;19(1):63-9.Abstract

SUMMARY: While Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is relatively common, surgical management of the associated strabismus can be challenging because of the lack of abduction/adduction, the variable severity of muscle contracture, and the variety of clinical presentations. In this workshop a panel of experienced surgeons provide their perspective and practical tips on the management of strabismus in patients with DRS.

Farkas MH, Au ED, Sousa ME, Pierce EA. RNA-Seq: Improving Our Understanding of Retinal Biology and Disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2015;Abstract

Over the past several years, rapid technological advances have allowed for a dramatic increase in our knowledge and understanding of the transcriptional landscape, because of the ability to study gene expression in greater depth and with more detail than previously possible. To this end, RNA-Seq has quickly become one of the most widely used methods for studying transcriptomes of tissues and individual cells. Unlike previously favored analysis methods, RNA-Seq is extremely high-throughput, and is not dependent on an annotated transcriptome, laying the foundation for novel genetic discovery. Additionally, RNA-Seq derived transcriptomes provide a basis for widening the scope of research to identify potential targets in the treatment of retinal disease.

Wang Z, Cheng R, Lee K, Tyagi P, Ding L, Kompella UB, Chen J, Xu X, Ma J-X. Nanoparticle-mediated expression of a wnt pathway inhibitor ameliorates ocular neovascularization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2015;35(4):855-64.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The deficiency of very low-density lipoprotein receptor resulted in Wnt signaling activation and neovascularization in the retina. The present study sought to determine whether the very low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain (VLN) is responsible for the inhibition of Wnt signaling in ocular tissues. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A plasmid expressing the soluble VLN was encapsulated with poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) to form VLN nanoparticles (VLN-NP). Nanoparticles containing a plasmid expressing the low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain nanoparticle were used as negative control. MTT, modified Boyden chamber, and Matrigel (™) assays were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of VLN-NP on Wnt3a-stimulated endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Vldlr(-/-) mice, oxygen-induced retinopathy, and alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization models were used to evaluate the effect of VLN-NP on ocular neovascularization. Wnt reporter mice (BAT-gal), Western blotting, and luciferase assay were used to evaluate Wnt pathway activity. Our results showed that VLN-NP specifically inhibited Wnt3a-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Intravitreal injection of VLN-NP inhibited abnormal neovascularization in Vldlr(-/-), oxygen-induced retinopathy, and alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization models, compared with low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular domain nanoparticle. VLN-NP significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, the accumulation of β-catenin, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that the soluble VLN is a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway and has antiangiogenic activities. Nanoparticle-mediated expression of VLN may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach to treat pathological ocular angiogenesis and potentially other vascular diseases affected by Wnt signaling.

Rodriguez-Galindo C, Orbach DB, Vanderveen D. Retinoblastoma. Pediatr Clin North Am 2015;62(1):201-23.Abstract

Retinoblastoma is the most common neoplasm of the eye in childhood, and represents 3% of all childhood malignancies. Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the very young; two-thirds are diagnosed before 2 years of age and 95% before 5 years. Retinoblastoma presents in 2 distinct clinical forms: (1) a bilateral or multifocal, heritable form (25% of all cases), characterized by the presence of germline mutations of the RB1 gene; and (2) a unilateral or unifocal form (75% of all cases), 90% of which are nonhereditary. The treatment of retinoblastoma is multidisciplinary and is designed primarily to save life and preserve vision.

Jakobiec FA, Kool M, Stagner AM, Pfister SM, Eagle RC, Proia AD, Korshunov A. Intraocular Medulloepitheliomas and Embryonal Tumors with Multilayered Rosettes of the Brain: Comparative Roles of LIN28A and C19MC. Am J Ophthalmol 2015;Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare immunohistochemical and genetic overlaps and differences between intraocular medulloepitheliomas and embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes of the brain. DESIGN: Retrospective histopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis of 20 intraocular medulloepitheliomas. METHODS: 1) Review of clinical data and hematoxylin and eosin stained sections with 2) immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections using a polyclonal antibody against the protein LIN28A, and 3) FISH testing for the amplification of the genetic locus 19q13.42 involving the C19MC cluster of miRNA. Ten retinoblastomas served as controls and to determine the specificity of these biomarkers for intraocular medulloepitheliomas. RESULTS: Nineteen of the 20 intraocular medulloepitheliomas were either diffusely or focally LIN28A positive (weak, moderate or strong). The most intense positivity correlated with aggressive behavior such as intraocular tissue invasion or extraocular extension. None of the cases studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) harbored an amplicon for C19MC. The ten retinoblastomas were LIN28A and C19MC negative. CONCLUSION: LIN28A has a putative role in oncogenesis and is found only in embryonic cells and malignancies. Intraocular medulloepitheliomas and embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes of the brain both display LIN28A positivity. Only the latter, however, display amplification of the 19q13.42 locus involving C19MC, implying that other causative factors are at play in intraocular medulloepitheliomas. More aggressive tumor behavior within the eye can be partially predicted by LIN28A staining intensity.

Stacy RC, Gilbert AL, Rizzo JF. Correlation of clinical profile and specific histopathological features of temporal artery biopsies. J Neuroophthalmol 2015;35(2):127-33.Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study sought to correlate the clinical features of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) who present with ophthalmic symptoms and signs, with 2 specific histopathological findings-the presence of giant cells and arterial wall neoangiogenesis. The goal was to assess if these pathological features might be useful in guiding the approach to patient management. METHODS: Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed from 58 patients who underwent a temporal artery biopsy at a single institution. Detailed information was collected about the clinical presentation and course, with an emphasis on visual function. Histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques were used to examine temporal artery biopsies for evidence of inflammation. Correlations were made between the clinical data and the presence of giant cells and neoangiogenesis. RESULTS: Twenty-one (34%) biopsies were positive for inflammation consistent with GCA. Although the percentage of positive biopsies with giant cells was high, neither the presence of giant cells nor neoangiogenesis was predictive of a patient's presenting visual symptoms, severity and bilaterality of vision loss, other ophthalmic manifestations of GCA, presence of headache or jaw claudication, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Giant cells were more common in patients with recent weight loss. Immunohistochemistry confirmed diagnoses but did not alter the clinical course or treatment plan. CONCLUSIONS: There was no correlation between the clinical, specifically visual, features of GCA and the presence or absence of giant cells or neoangiogenesis in temporal artery biopsy specimens. Although the presence of neoangiogenesis may be important in the pathogenesis of GCA, our study showed no correlation between this finding and the clinical course.

Machiela MJ, Zhou W, Sampson JN, Dean MC, Jacobs KB, Black A, Brinton LA, Chang I-S, Chen C, Chen C, Chen K, Cook LS, Crous Bou M, De Vivo I, Doherty J, Friedenreich CM, Gaudet MM, Haiman CA, Hankinson SE, Hartge P, Henderson BE, Hong Y-C, Hosgood DH, Hsiung CA, Hu W, Hunter DJ, Jessop L, Kim HN, Kim YH, Kim YT, Klein R, Kraft P, Lan Q, Lin D, Liu J, Le Marchand L, Liang X, Lissowska J, Lu L, Magliocco AM, Matsuo K, Olson SH, Orlow I, Park JY, Pooler L, Prescott J, Rastogi R, Risch HA, Schumacher F, Seow A, Setiawan VW, Shen H, Sheng X, Shin M-H, Shu X-O, Van Den Berg D, Wang J-C, Wentzensen N, Wong MP, Wu C, Wu T, Wu Y-L, Xia L, Yang HP, Yang P-C, Zheng W, Zhou B, Abnet CC, Albanes D, Aldrich MC, Amos C, Amundadottir LT, Berndt SI, Blot WJ, Bock CH, Bracci PM, Burdett L, Buring JE, Butler MA, Carreón T, Chatterjee N, Chung CC, Cook MB, Cullen M, Davis FG, Ding T, Duell EJ, Epstein CG, Fan J-H, Figueroa JD, Fraumeni JF, Freedman ND, Fuchs CS, Gao Y-T, Gapstur SM, Patiño-Garcia A, Garcia-Closas M, Gaziano MJ, Giles GG, Gillanders EM, Giovannucci EL, Goldin L, Goldstein AM, Greene MH, Hallmans G, Harris CC, Henriksson R, Holly EA, Hoover RN, Hu N, Hutchinson A, Jenab M, Johansen C, Khaw K-T, Koh W-P, Kolonel LN, Kooperberg C, Krogh V, Kurtz RC, LaCroix A, Landgren A, Landi MT, Li D, Liao LM, Malats N, McGlynn KA, McNeill LH, McWilliams RR, Melin BS, Mirabello L, Peplonska B, Peters U, Petersen GM, Prokunina-Olsson L, Purdue M, Qiao Y-L, Rabe KG, Rajaraman P, Real FX, Riboli E, Rodríguez-Santiago B, Rothman N, Ruder AM, Savage SA, Schwartz AG, Schwartz KL, Sesso HD, Severi G, Silverman DT, Spitz MR, Stevens VL, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Stram D, Tang Z-Z, Taylor PR, Teras LR, Tobias GS, Viswanathan K, Wacholder S, Wang Z, Weinstein SJ, Wheeler W, White E, Wiencke JK, Wolpin BM, Wu X, Wunder JS, Yu K, Zanetti KA, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Ziegler RG, deAndrade M, Barnes KC, Beaty TH, Bierut LJ, Desch KC, Doheny KF, Feenstra B, Ginsburg D, Heit JA, Kang JH, Laurie CA, Li JZ, Lowe WL, Marazita ML, Melbye M, Mirel DB, Murray JC, Nelson SC, Pasquale LR, Rice K, Wiggs JL, Wise A, Tucker M, Pérez-Jurado LA, Laurie CC, Caporaso NE, Yeager M, Chanock SJ. Characterization of large structural genetic mosaicism in human autosomes. Am J Hum Genet 2015;96(3):487-97.Abstract

Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10(-31)) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population.

Jacobo SMP, Kazlauskas A. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Stabilizes Nascent Blood Vessels. J Biol Chem 2015;290(10):6349-60.Abstract

Here we report that VEGF-A and IGF-1 differ in their ability to stabilize newly formed blood vessels and endothelial cell tubes. Although VEGF-A failed to support an enduring vascular response, IGF-1 stabilized neovessels generated from primary endothelial cells derived from various vascular beds and mouse retinal explants. In these experimental systems, destabilization/regression was driven by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Because previous studies have established that Erk antagonizes LPA-mediated regression, we considered whether Erk was an essential component of IGF-dependent stabilization. Indeed, IGF-1 lost its ability to stabilize neovessels when the Erk pathway was inhibited pharmacologically. Furthermore, stabilization was associated with prolonged Erk activity. In the presence of IGF-1, Erk activity persisted longer than in the presence of VEGF or LPA alone. These studies reveal that VEGF and IGF-1 can have distinct inputs in the angiogenic process. In contrast to VEGF, IGF-1 stabilizes neovessels, which is dependent on Erk activity and associated with prolonged activation.

Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Valdez CN, Marko CK, D'Amore PA. From pathobiology to the targeting of pericytes for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Curr Diab Rep 2015;15(2):573.Abstract

Pericytes, the mural cells that constitute the capillaries along with endothelial cells, have been associated with the pathobiology of diabetic retinopathy; however, therapeutic implications of this association remain largely unexplored. Pericytes appear to be highly susceptible to the metabolic challenges associated with a diabetic environment, and there is substantial evidence that their loss may contribute to microvascular instability leading to the formation of microaneurysms, microhemorrhages, acellular capillaries, and capillary nonperfusion. Since pericytes are strategically located at the interface between the vascular and neural components of the retina, they offer extraordinary opportunities for therapeutic interventions in diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, the availability of novel imaging methodologies now allows for the in vivo visualization of pericytes, enabling a new generation of clinical trials that use pericyte tracking as clinical endpoints. The recognition of multiple signaling mechanisms involved in pericyte development and survival should allow for a renewed interest in pericytes as a therapeutic target for diabetic retinopathy.

Liu Y, Kam WR, Ding J, Sullivan DA. Can tetracycline antibiotics duplicate the ability of azithromycin to stimulate human meibomian gland epithelial cell differentiation?. Cornea 2015;34(3):342-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: Azithromycin and tetracyclines are commonly prescribed in the United States for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The efficacy of these antibiotics has been believed to be their antiinflammatory and antibacterial actions, which suppress MGD-associated posterior blepharitis and growth of lid bacteria. However, we recently discovered that azithromycin can act directly on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs) to stimulate their function. In this study, we sought to determine whether tetracycline antibiotics can duplicate this azithromycin effect. METHODS: Immortalized HMGEC were cultured in the presence of a vehicle, azithromycin, doxycycline, minocycline, or tetracycline for 5 days. Cells were evaluated for cholesterol and neutral lipid staining, and the lipid composition of cellular lysates was analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that azithromycin's ability to stimulate the differentiation of human meibomian gland cells is unique, and is not duplicated by doxycycline, minocycline, or tetracycline. Azithromycin, but not the other antibiotics, significantly increased the cellular accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, and lysosomes. These differentiative actions of azithromycin were paralleled by an increased expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that the stimulatory effects of azithromycin on HMGEC function are unique and are not duplicated by the antibiotics doxycycline, minocycline, or tetracycline. Our results further suggest that this stimulatory influence of azithromycin may contribute to its beneficial effect in treating MGD and its associated evaporative dry eye disease.

Aung T, Ozaki M, Mizoguchi T, Allingham RR, Li Z, Haripriya A, Nakano S, Uebe S, Harder JM, Chan ASY, Lee MC, Burdon KP, Astakhov YS, Abu-Amero KK, Zenteno JC, Nilgün Y, Zarnowski T, Pakravan M, Safieh LA, Jia L, Wang YX, Williams S, Paoli D, Schlottmann PG, Huang L, Sim KS, Foo JN, Nakano M, Ikeda Y, Kumar RS, Ueno M, Manabe S-I, Hayashi K, Kazama S, Ideta R, Mori Y, Miyata K, Sugiyama K, Higashide T, Chihara E, Inoue K, Ishiko S, Yoshida A, Yanagi M, Kiuchi Y, Aihara M, Ohashi T, Sakurai T, Sugimoto T, Chuman H, Matsuda F, Yamashiro K, Gotoh N, Miyake M, Astakhov SY, Osman EA, Al-Obeidan SA, Owaidhah O, Al-Jasim L, Shahwan SA, Fogarty RA, Leo P, Yetkin Y, Oğuz Ç, Kanavi MR, Beni AN, Yazdani S, Akopov EL, Toh K-Y, Howell GR, Orr AC, Goh Y, Meah WY, Peh SQ, Kosior-Jarecka E, Lukasik U, Krumbiegel M, Vithana EN, Wong TY, Liu Y, Koch AAE, Challa P, Rautenbach RM, Mackey DA, Hewitt AW, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Ziskind A, Carmichael T, Ramakrishnan R, Narendran K, Venkatesh R, Vijayan S, Zhao P, Chen X, Guadarrama-Vallejo D, Cheng CY, Perera SA, Husain R, Ho S-L, Welge-Luessen U-C, Mardin C, Schloetzer-Schrehardt U, Hillmer AM, Herms S, Moebus S, Nöthen MM, Weisschuh N, Shetty R, Ghosh A, Teo YY, Brown MA, Lischinsky I, Lischinsky I, Lischinsky I, Crowston JG, Coote M, Zhao B, Sang J, Zhang N, You Q, Vysochinskaya V, Founti P, Chatzikyriakidou A, Lambropoulos A, Anastasopoulos E, Coleman AL, Wilson RM, Rhee DJ, Kang JH, May-Bolchakova I, Heegaard S, Mori K, Alward WLM, Jonas JB, Xu L, Liebmann JM, Chowbay B, Schaeffeler E, Schwab M, Lerner F, Wang N, Yang Z, Frezzotti P, Kinoshita S, Fingert JH, Inatani M, Tashiro K, Reis A, Edward DP, Pasquale LR, Kubota T, Wiggs JL, Pasutto F, Topouzis F, Dubina M, Craig JE, Yoshimura N, Sundaresan P, John SWM, Ritch R, Hauser MA, Khor C-C. A common variant mapping to CACNA1A is associated with susceptibility to exfoliation syndrome. Nat Genet 2015;47(4):387-92.Abstract

Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common recognizable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,484 cases and 1,188 controls from Japan and followed up the most significant findings in a further 6,901 cases and 20,727 controls from 17 countries across 6 continents. We discovered a genome-wide significant association between a new locus (CACNA1A rs4926244) and increased susceptibility to XFS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, P = 3.36 × 10(-11)). Although we also confirmed overwhelming association at the LOXL1 locus, the key SNP marker (LOXL1 rs4886776) demonstrated allelic reversal depending on the ancestry group (Japanese: ORA allele = 9.87, P = 2.13 × 10(-217); non-Japanese: ORA allele = 0.49, P = 2.35 × 10(-31)). Our findings represent the first genetic locus outside of LOXL1 surpassing genome-wide significance for XFS and provide insight into the biology and pathogenesis of the disease.

Weiss JS, Møller HU, Aldave AJ, Seitz B, Bredrup C, Kivelä T, Munier FL, Rapuano CJ, Nischal KK, Kim EK, Sutphin J, Busin M, Labbé A, Kenyon KR, Kinoshita S, Lisch W. IC3D classification of corneal dystrophies--edition 2. Cornea 2015;34(2):117-59.Abstract

PURPOSE: To update the 2008 International Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) incorporating new clinical, histopathologic, and genetic information. METHODS: The IC3D reviewed worldwide peer-reviewed articles for new information on corneal dystrophies published between 2008 and 2014. Using this information, corneal dystrophy templates and anatomic classification were updated. New clinical, histopathologic, and confocal photographs were added. RESULTS: On the basis of revisiting the cellular origin of corneal dystrophy, a modified anatomic classification is proposed consisting of (1) epithelial and subepithelial dystrophies, (2) epithelial-stromal TGFBI dystrophies, (3) stromal dystrophies, and (4) endothelial dystrophies. Most of the dystrophy templates are updated. The entity "Epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophies" actually includes a number of potentially distinct epithelial dystrophies (Franceschetti corneal dystrophy, Dystrophia Smolandiensis, and Dystrophia Helsinglandica) but must be differentiated from dystrophies such as TGFBI-induced dystrophies, which are also often associated with recurrent epithelial erosions. The chromosome locus of Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy is only located on 5q31. The entity previously designated as a variant of Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy on chromosome 10q24 may represent a novel corneal dystrophy. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED, formerly CHED2) is most likely only an autosomal recessive disorder. The so-called autosomal dominant inherited CHED (formerly CHED1) is insufficiently distinct to continue to be considered a unique corneal dystrophy. On review of almost all of the published cases, the description appeared most similar to a type of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy linked to the same chromosome 20 locus (PPCD1). Confocal microscopy also has emerged as a helpful tool to reveal in vivo features of several corneal dystrophies that previously required histopathologic examination to definitively diagnose. CONCLUSIONS: This revision of the IC3D classification includes an updated anatomic classification of corneal dystrophies more accurately classifying TGFBI dystrophies that affect multiple layers rather than are confined to one corneal layer. Typical histopathologic and confocal images have been added to the corneal dystrophy templates.

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