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Henao-Restrepo J, López-Murillo C, Valderrama-Carmona P, Orozco-Santa N, Gomez J, Gutiérrez-Vargas J, Moraga R, Toledo J, Littau JL, Härtel S, Arboleda-Velásquez JF, Sepulveda-Falla D, Lopera F, Cardona-Gómez GP, Villegas A, Posada-Duque R. Gliovascular alterations in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease: APOE3 Christchurch homozygote glioprotection. Brain Pathol 2022;:e13119.Abstract
In response to brain insults, astrocytes become reactive, promoting protection and tissue repair. However, astroglial reactivity is typical of brain pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considering the heterogeneity of the reactive response, the role of astrocytes in the course of different forms of AD has been underestimated. Colombia has the largest human group known to have familial AD (FAD). This group carries the autosomal dominant and fully penetrant mutation E280A in PSEN1, which causes early-onset AD. Recently, our group identified an E280A carrier who did not develop FAD. The individual was homozygous for the Christchurch mutation R136S in APOE3 (APOEch). Remarkably, APOE is the main genetic risk factor for developing sporadic AD (SAD) and most of cerebral ApoE is produced by astroglia. Here, we characterized astrocyte properties related to reactivity, glutamate homeostasis, and structural integrity of the gliovascular unit (GVU), as factors that could underlie the pathogenesis or protection of AD. Specifically, through histological and 3D microscopy analyses of postmortem samples, we briefly describe the histopathology and cytoarchitecture of the frontal cortex of SAD, FAD, and APOEch, and demonstrate that, while astrodegeneration and vascular deterioration are prominent in SAD, FAD is characterized by hyperreactive-like glia, and APOEch displays the mildest astrocytic and vascular alterations despite having the highest burden of Aβ. Notably, astroglial, gliovascular, and vascular disturbances, as well as brain cell death, correlate with the specific astrocytic phenotypes identified in each condition. This study provides new insights into the potential relevance of the gliovasculature in the development and protection of AD. To our knowledge, this is the first study assessing the components of the GVU in human samples of SAD, FAD, and APOEch.
Neerukonda VK, Lefebvre D, Chatson GP, Stagner AM. Silicone Granulomas of the Eyelids-A Case Series Illustrating a Distant Migratory Phenomenon. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: Exogenous silicone has been reported to migrate to anatomic sights far from an initial injection or implantation site; this phenomenon has been rarely described in the ocular adnexa, especially in the eyelids. We document 3 additional cases of distant migration of silicone implanted elsewhere in the body to the eyelids and review the prior literature on this uncommon event. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 3 patients was conducted along with analysis of diagnostic histopathology. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding dissemination or migration of silicone to the eyelids in patients with either silicone breast implants or silicone facial filler use was performed. RESULTS: Cases of silicone migrating to the eyelids from silicone breast implants and silicone-based facial filler are outlined in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. There are 4 total reports of women with silicone breast implants, including the 2 described here, with evidence of migration of silicone to the eyelid. Similarly, 5 cases of silicone-based facial filler with resultant migration of filler to the eyelids were identified, including 2 of the cases presented in this report (1 patient had both silicone breast implants and silicone facial filler). CONCLUSION: Silicone is chemically inert, but is known to travel throughout the body, causing a resultant foreign body response in tissue that can adversely affect even the eyelids. Silicone has a relatively characteristic histologic appearance and diagnosis of silicone granuloma highlights the importance of obtaining a thorough clinical history, particularly regarding prior cosmetic injections or breast enhancement surgery. Foreign material/foreign body granuloma is important to consider in patients with deep eyelid nodules of unclear etiology.
Maleki A, Fernandez CC, Philip AM, Manhapra A, Chang PY, Foster SC. Acute macular neuroretinopathy in a patient with birdshot chorioretinopathy after intravitreal triamcinolone suspension injection. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;:11206721221124653.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a case of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TRIESENCE®) injection for cystoid macular edema secondary to birdshot chorioretinopathy. METHOD: A case report. PATIENT: A 62-year-old female. RESULTS: The patient presented with acutely decreased vision and a ring scotoma around her central vision three days after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TRIESENCE®) injection for cystoid macular edema in her right eye (OD) secondary to birdshot chorioretinopathy. She had undergone pars plana vitrectomy, cataract extraction, and secondary intraocular lens implantation OD three months prior to the recent injection. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/1000 OD and 20/50 OS. Intraocular pressure was 21 mmHg OD and 12 mmHg OS. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a hypofluorescent area in the perifoveal zone OD. Optical coherence tomography OD depicted hyperreflective areas in the outer nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, and retinal pigment epithelium. We diagnosed her with AMN OD and started her on brimonidine three times a day OD. She came back a week later with resolved scotoma and her vision improved to 20/60 OD. Five weeks later, BCVA was 20/40 and Intraocular pressures (IOP) was 12 mmHg OD. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: Intravitreal triamcinolone injection may be a cause of AMN with cystoid macular edema (CME) and borderline-high intraocular pressure. Brimonidine may be an effective treatment for these patients in the early course of the disease.
West CE, Hunter DG. Carbon footprint of the 2021 and 2022 AAPOS annual meetings. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a virtual annual meeting of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) in 2021, thus eliminating carbon emissions from travel to and from the planned meeting venue in Boston, Massachusetts. We found that the reduced carbon footprint of the virtual meeting saved 1,282 metric tonnes of CO2 emissions compared with estimated CO2 emissions for travel if the meeting had taken place in person, or 880 metric tonnes relative to the projected emissions associated with the in-person 2022 annual meeting in Scottsdale, Arizona. An entirely virtual or hybrid AAPOS meeting would reduce its environmental footprint and increase the opportunity for national and international participation and education.
Oke I, Hall N, Elze T, Miller JW, Lorch AC, Hunter DG, Hunter DG. Adjustable Suture Technique Is Associated with Fewer Strabismus Reoperations in the Intelligent Research in Sight Registry. Ophthalmology 2022;129(9):1028-1033.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the reoperation rates after strabismus surgery with and without the adjustable suture technique. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients 18 years of age or older in the Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry who underwent strabismus surgery between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2018. METHODS: Data were collected from the electronic health records of practices participating in the IRIS Registry. The primary exposure of interest was use of the adjustable suture technique, identified by Current Procedural Terminology coding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was repeat strabismus surgery within 1 year of initial strabismus surgery. Odds ratios (ORs) were derived from a multivariable logistic regression model evaluating the association between the use of adjustable sutures and reoperation rate, adjusting for patient demographics and surgical factors. RESULTS: A total of 34 872 patients who underwent strabismus surgery during the study interval were identified: 72% underwent horizontal muscle surgery, 17% underwent vertical muscle surgery, and 11% underwent combined horizontal and vertical muscle surgery. Adjustable sutures were used in 18% of patients. The overall reoperation rate within 1 year of strabismus surgery was 7.7%. The 1-year reoperation rate was 6.0% for patients treated with adjustable sutures and 8.1% for patients treated without adjustable sutures (P < 0.001). The multivariable regression model revealed a statistically significant 30% decrease in the odds of reoperation within 1 year of surgery when adjustable sutures were used (OR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.78), a 40% increase in those with a history of prior strabismus surgery (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.28-1.53), and a 9% increase per decade of age at surgery (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In adults cared for in practices participating in the IRIS Registry, the adjustable suture technique was associated with a significantly lower reoperation rate within 1 year of undergoing horizontal or combined horizontal and vertical strabismus surgery. Adjustable suture use in vertical strabismus surgery alone did not reduce the 1-year reoperation rate significantly. A history of prior strabismus surgery was associated with increased odds of reoperation.
Adomfeh J, Jastrzembski BG, Oke I. Association of Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status With Visual Impairment in Adolescent Children in the US. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(10):1006-1010.Abstract
Importance: Although racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in visual impairment have been described in adults, few studies have focused on the adolescent population, which may provide insight into the emergence of vision health inequities. Objective: To describe visual health disparities among adolescent children in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a cross-sectional study of adolescents from the 2005 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were aged 12 to 18 years with a completed visual function questionnaire and eye examination. Data analyses were conducted from January 19 to July 20, 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes included subjective (self-reported poor vision) and objective (visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye) measures of visual function. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between the sociodemographic risk factors and each outcome, adjusting for age, sex, and other covariates. Results: The 2833 included participants (mean [SD] age, 15.5 [2.0] years; 1407 female participants [49%]) represent a survey-weighted 57 million US adolescent children, of whom 14% were non-Hispanic Black participants (876), 11% were Mexican American participants (828), 63% were non-Hispanic White participants (816), and 11% were other race and ethnicity (313). A total of 5% of participants (266) were not US citizens, and 19% (773) had a family income below the poverty threshold. There were increased odds of self-reported poor vision among Black (odds ratio [OR], 2.85; 95% CI, 2.00-4.05; P < .001), Mexican American (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.70-4.73; P < .001), and low-income (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.63-3.65; P < .001) adolescent children. Similarly, there were increased odds of visual acuity worse than 20/40 in the better-seeing eye among Black (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.41-3.24; P = .001), Mexican American (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.39-3.26; P = .001), and non-US citizen (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.10-3.49; P = .02) participants. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative sample from 2005 to 2008, adolescent children identifying as Black, Mexican American, low-income, or non-US citizen were more likely to report poor subjective visual function and perform worse on objective visual acuity testing. A greater understanding of the underlying etiology of these disparities may yield opportunities for improving vision at the population level.
Woreta FA, Gordon LK, Knight O'RJ, Randolph JD, Zebardast N, Pérez-González CE. Enhancing Diversity in the Ophthalmology Workforce. Ophthalmology 2022;129(10):e127-e136.Abstract
Health care teams are most effective at addressing complex problems and improving health outcomes for underserved populations when team members bring diverse life experiences and perspectives to the effort. With rates of visual impairment expected to increase in the United States by 2050, especially among minority populations, diversification of the ophthalmology workforce will be critical in reducing disparities in access to and quality of vision health care. Currently, ophthalmology is less diverse with respect to race, ethnicity, and gender than graduating medical classes and other medical specialties, as well as the general US population. In addition, data on diversity in sexual orientation and gender identity, socioeconomic status, and disability are lacking in ophthalmology. The Minority Ophthalmology Mentoring and Rabb-Venable Excellence in Ophthalmology Programs are examples of initiatives to increase racial and ethnic diversity in the workforce and can serve as models for increasing other aspects of inclusiveness. Other strategies for improving vision health care for all Americans include continuing to support existing diversity programs and creating new ones; addressing unconscious and implicit bias in medical school, residency, and faculty selections; conducting holistic reviews of medical school and residency applications; diversifying selection committees and leadership; and encouraging faculty development of underrepresented groups.
Sanjurjo-Soriano C, Erkilic N, Damodar K, Boukhaddaoui H, Diakatou M, Garita-Hernandez M, Mamaeva D, Dubois G, Jazouli Z, Jimenez-Medina C, Goureau O, Meunier I, Kalatzis V. Retinoic acid delays initial photoreceptor differentiation and results in a highly structured mature retinal organoid. Stem Cell Res Ther 2022;13(1):478.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids are a valuable tool for disease modelling and therapeutic development. Many efforts have been made over the last decade to optimise protocols for the generation of organoids that correctly mimic the human retina. Most protocols use common media supplements; however, protocol-dependent variability impacts data interpretation. To date, the lack of a systematic comparison of a given protocol with or without supplements makes it difficult to determine how they influence the differentiation process and morphology of the retinal organoids. METHODS: A 2D-3D differentiation method was used to generate retinal organoids, which were cultured with or without the most commonly used media supplements, notably retinoic acid. Gene expression was assayed using qPCR analysis, protein expression using immunofluorescence studies, ultrastructure using electron microscopy and 3D morphology using confocal and biphoton microscopy of whole organoids. RESULTS: Retinoic acid delayed the initial stages of differentiation by modulating photoreceptor gene expression. At later stages, the presence of retinoic acid led to the generation of mature retinal organoids with a well-structured stratified photoreceptor layer containing a predominant rod population. By contrast, the absence of retinoic acid led to cone-rich organoids with a less organised and non-stratified photoreceptor layer. CONCLUSIONS: This study proves the importance of supplemented media for culturing retinal organoids. More importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that the role of retinoic acid goes beyond inducing a rod cell fate to enhancing the organisation of the photoreceptor layer of the mature organoid.
Harris CK, Christensen BB, Kwan M, Foreman RK, Stagner AM. Pseudomonas species may appear strikingly filamentous in tissue sections: an important consideration for surgical pathologists and a reminder of the utility of modified silver impregnation methods. Histopathology 2022;Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Although tissue culture is the gold standard for diagnosing infection, histologic examination of surgically resected tissue can be a critical component in the diagnosis of tissue infection. The goal of this brief report is to alert surgical pathologists that Pseudomonas species can appear strikingly filamentous histologically and may somewhat mimic the appearance of filamentous bacteria, such Actinomyces or Nocardia, or thin fungal hyphae. A secondary aim is to raise awareness that Pseudomonas can sometimes only be identified histologically through the use of a modified silver impregnation method (Steiner stain). METHODS: Five cases of filamentous Pseudomonas were encountered in three different surgical pathology subspecialities (ophthalmic pathology, cardiovascular pathology, and dermatopathology) over a 1-year period. All cases were of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, stained using hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and multiple histochemical stains. Four cases grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture and in the fifth case, a non-aeruginosa species was detected using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. RESULTS: Five cases of markedly filamentous-appearing Pseudomonas were identified in five different tissue sites: vascular graft, enucleation (whole eye) specimen, scleral biopsy, soft tissue excision, and skin punch biopsy. In one of the five cases were the organisms seen on H&E and in only two of the five were the organisms seen on Brown-Hopps stain. In all five cases, the organisms were identified on Steiner stain. DISCUSSION: Pseudomonas can appear markedly filamentous. If Pseudomonas or other bacterial infection is suspected, the surgical pathologist would be advised to employ the Steiner stain to most consistently detect the organisms.
Takatoh J, Prevosto V, Thompson PM, Lu J, Chung L, Harrahill A, Li S, Zhao S, He Z, Golomb D, Kleinfeld D, Wang F. The whisking oscillator circuit. Nature 2022;609(7927):560-568.Abstract
Central oscillators are primordial neural circuits that generate and control rhythmic movements1,2. Mechanistic understanding of these circuits requires genetic identification of the oscillator neurons and their synaptic connections to enable targeted electrophysiological recording and causal manipulation during behaviours. However, such targeting remains a challenge with mammalian systems. Here we delimit the oscillator circuit that drives rhythmic whisking-a motor action that is central to foraging and active sensing in rodents3,4. We found that the whisking oscillator consists of parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons located in the vibrissa intermediate reticular nucleus (vIRtPV) in the brainstem. vIRtPV neurons receive descending excitatory inputs and form recurrent inhibitory connections among themselves. Silencing vIRtPV neurons eliminated rhythmic whisking and resulted in sustained vibrissae protraction. In vivo recording of opto-tagged vIRtPV neurons in awake mice showed that these cells spike tonically when animals are at rest, and transition to rhythmic bursting at the onset of whisking, suggesting that rhythm generation is probably the result of network dynamics, as opposed to intrinsic cellular properties. Notably, ablating inhibitory synaptic inputs to vIRtPV neurons quenched their rhythmic bursting, impaired the tonic-to-bursting transition and abolished regular whisking. Thus, the whisking oscillator is an all-inhibitory network and recurrent synaptic inhibition has a key role in its rhythmogenesis.
Guzman Aparicio MA, Liebman DL, Chodosh J, Freitag SK, Kazlas M, Mai DD, Marando CM, Mukai S, Wu AM, Chen TC. Two pediatric cases of reticular corneal epithelial edema associated with netarsudil. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101638.Abstract
Purpose: To report two pediatric cases of reticular corneal epithelial edema associated with the use of netarsudil ophthalmic solution 0.02%. Observations: In Case 1, a six-year-old male with glaucoma following cataract surgery was treated with netarsudil for thirteen months and developed diffuse reticular corneal epithelial edema on post-operative day one after undergoing transscleral diode cyclophotocoagulation for persistently elevated intraocular pressures. In Case 2, a three-month-old male with bilateral ocular hypertension developed unilateral inferior reticular corneal epithelial edema five weeks after initiation of netarsudil, which had been discontinued in the fellow eye two weeks prior. In both cases, the reticular epithelial edema resolved following cessation of netarsudil. Conclusions and Importance: Netarsudil-associated reticular corneal epithelial edema can occur in infants and young children.
Hoogsteen KMP, Szpiro S, Kreiman G, Peli E. Beyond the Cane: Describing Urban Scenes to Blind People for Mobility Tasks. ACM Trans Access Comput 2022;15(3)Abstract
Blind people face difficulties with independent mobility, impacting employment prospects, social inclusion, and quality of life. Given the advancements in computer vision, with more efficient and effective automated information extraction from visual scenes, it is important to determine what information is worth conveying to blind travelers, especially since people have a limited capacity to receive and process sensory information. We aimed to investigate which objects in a street scene are useful to describe and how those objects should be described. Thirteen cane-using participants, five of whom were early blind, took part in two urban walking experiments. In the first experiment, participants were asked to voice their information needs in the form of questions to the experimenter. In the second experiment, participants were asked to score scene descriptions and navigation instructions, provided by the experimenter, in terms of their usefulness. The descriptions included a variety of objects with various annotations per object. Additionally, we asked participants to rank order the objects and the different descriptions per object in terms of priority and explain why the provided information is or is not useful to them. The results reveal differences between early and late blind participants. Late blind participants requested information more frequently and prioritized information about objects' locations. Our results illustrate how different factors, such as the level of detail, relative position, and what type of information is provided when describing an object, affected the usefulness of scene descriptions. Participants explained how they (indirectly) used information, but they were frequently unable to explain their ratings. The results distinguish between various types of travel information, underscore the importance of featuring these types at multiple levels of abstraction, and highlight gaps in current understanding of travel information needs. Elucidating the information needs of blind travelers is critical for the development of more useful assistive technologies.
Yang M, Fjærvoll HK, Fjærvoll KA, Wang NH, Utheim TP, Serhan CN, Dartt DA. Sex-based differences in conjunctival goblet cell responses to pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediators. Sci Rep 2022;12(1):16305.Abstract
Many conjunctival inflammatory diseases differ between the sexes and altered conjunctival goblet cells (CGCs) response is often involved. Inflammation is initiated by the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and terminated by the biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). Herein, we determined the sex-based difference in the responses of CGCs to inflammatory stimuli or pro-resolving lipid SPMs and their interaction with sex hormones. GCs were cultured from pieces of human conjunctiva in RPMI media. CGCs were transferred 24 h before the start of experiments to phenol red-free and FBS-free media to minimize exogenous hormones. RT-PCR, immunofluorescence microscopy (IF), and Western Blot (WB) were performed to determine the presence of sex hormone receptors. Cellular response to pro-inflammatory stimuli or SPMs was studied by measuring the increase in intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) using fura 2/AM microscopy. Use of RT-PCR demonstrated estrogen receptor (ER) α in 4/5 males and 3/3 females; ERβ in 2/4 males and 2/3 females; and androgen receptors (AR) in 3/3 male and 3/3 female CGCs. Positive immunoreactivity by IF and protein expression by WB was detected using antibodies for the ERα and ERβ in 3/3 males and 3/3 females, while AR were only present in males. Significantly different Ca2+ responses between sexes were found with carbachol only at 10-3 M, but not with histamine or leukotriene (LT) B4 at any concentration used. Incubation with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), or estradiol (E2) at 10-7 M for 30 min significantly inhibited the LTB4-stimulated [Ca2+]i increase in male and female CGCs. Incubation with DHT, E1, and E2 overnight significantly inhibited the LTB4 response in females, while DHT and E2 significantly inhibited the LTB4 response in males. The SPM lipoxin A4 (LXA4) (10-9-10-8 M), but not the resolvins D1 or D2, induced an [Ca2+]i increase that was significantly higher in males compared to females. We conclude that male and female CGCs showed differences in the expression of sex hormone receptors. Treatment with sex hormones altered pro-inflammatory mediator LTB4-induced response. Males compared to females have a higher response to the ω-6-fatty acid derived SPM LXA4, indicating males may terminate inflammation in conjunctival goblet cells faster than females.
Huh DD, Wang J, Fliotsos MJ, Beal CJ, Boente CS, Wisely EC, De Andrade LM, Lorch AC, Ramanathan S, Reinoso MA, Swamy RN, Waxman EL, Woreta FA, Srikumaran D. Association Between Parental Leave and Ophthalmology Resident Physician Performance. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(11):1066-1075.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Although parental leave is essential in enhancing resident wellness and fostering inclusive workplace environments, residents may often feel discouraged from using parental leave owing to perceived stigma and concerns about possible negative effects on their training. OBJECTIVE: To examine parental leave usage across multiple institutions and compare residency performance metrics between residents who took parental leave vs their peers who did not take leave. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis conducted from April 1, 2020, to July 28, 2022, of educational records. Multicenter data were obtained from 10 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited ophthalmology programs across the US. Included ophthalmology residents graduated between 2015 and 2019. Data were analyzed from August 15, 2021, to July 25, 2022. EXPOSURES: Performance metrics of residents who used parental leave during residency were compared with those of residents who did not take parental leave. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Measures of performance included the Ophthalmic Knowledge Assessment Program (OKAP) scores, ACGME milestones scores, board examination pass rates, research activity, and surgical volumes. RESULTS: Of the 283 ophthalmology residents (149 male [52.7%]) included in the study, 44 (15.5%) took a median (IQR) parental leave of 4.5 (2-6) weeks. There were no differences in average OKAP percentiles, research activity, average ACGME milestones scores, or surgical volume between residents who took parental leave and those who did not. Residents who pursued fellowship were less likely to have taken parental leave (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27-0.68; P < .001), and residents who practiced in private settings after residency were more likely to have taken parental leave (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.79-7.08; P < .001). When stratified by sex, no differences were identified in performance between female residents who took parental leave compared with residents who did not take leave, except a mild surgical number difference in 1 subspecialty category of keratorefractive procedures (difference in median values, -2; 95% CI, -3.7 to -0.3; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this multicenter cross-sectional study, no differences in performance metrics were identified between residents taking parental leave compared with their peers. These findings may provide reassurance to trainees and program directors regarding the unlikelihood, on average, that taking adequate parental leave will affect performance metrics adversely.
Bleicher ID, Brill D, Wu F, Sobrin L, Patel N. Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy Following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-4.Abstract
A 49-year-old man presented with acute unilateral blurred vision one week after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. A unilateral serous detachment of the macula, intraretinal hemorrhages, vitritis, and anterior chamber cell was found. Diagnostic testing was negative for infectious and inflammatory causes, and a diagnosis of acute idiopathic maculopathy (AIM) was made. Symptoms and serous detachment resolved over 12 weeks, with residual retinal pigment epithelial changes consistent with the disease course. AIM is a rare diagnosis that presented in close proximity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination without evidence of coxsackievirus infection. Further research is necessary to clarify an association between this vaccine and uveitis.

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