Greiner JV, Glonek T. Hydrotropic function of ATP in the crystalline lens. Exp Eye Res 2020;190:107862.Abstract
The hypothesis proposed herein is presented to explain the unexpectedly high concentration of ATP and provide evidence to support its hydrotropic function in the crystalline lens determined using P NMR. The lens, historically considered to be a metabolically quiescent organ, has the requisite machinery to synthesize ATP, such that the homeostatic level is maintained at about 3 mM. This relatively high concentration of ATP has been found to be consistent among multiple mammalian species including humans. This millimolar quantity is many times greater than the micromolar amounts required for the other known functions of ATP. The recent postulation that ATP at millimolar concentrations functions as a hydrotrope in various cell/tissue homogenates preventing protein aggregation coupled with observations presented herein, provide support for extending the hypothesis that ATP functions as a hydrotrope not only in homogenates but in an intact functioning organ, the crystalline lens. Concentrations of ATP of this magnitude are hypothesized to be required to maintain protein solubility and effectively prevent protein aggregation. This concept is important considering protein aggregation is the etiology for age-related cataractogenesis. ATP is a common ubiquitous intracellular molecule possessing the requisite hydrotropic properties for maintaining intracellular proteins in a fluid, non-aggregated state. It is proposed that the amphiphilic ATP molecule shields the hydrophobic regions on intralenticular fiber cell protein molecules and provides a hydrophilic interfacial surface comprised of the ATP negatively charged triphosphate side chain. Evidence is presented that this side chain is exposed to and has been reported to organize intracellular interstitial water to form an interfacial rheologically dynamic water layer. Such organization of water is substantiated with the effect of deuterium oxide (heavy water) on ATP line widths of the side chain phosphates measured ex vivo by P NMR. A novel model is presented to propose how this water layer separates adjacent lens fiber cell proteins, keeping them from aggregating. This hypothesis proposes that ATP can prevent protein aggregation in normal intact lenses, and with declining concentrations can be related to the disease process in age-related cataractogenesis, an affliction that affects every older human being.
Lee J-J, Ishihara K, Notomi S, Efstathiou NE, Ueta T, Maidana D, Chen XH, Iesato Y, Caligiana A, Vavvas DG. Lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 deficiency increases the risk of reactive oxygen species-induced ferroptosis in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020;521(2):414-419.Abstract
Lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP2), is a highly glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein involved in chaperone mediated autophagy. Mutations of LAMP2 cause the classic triad of myopathy, cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy of Danon disease (DD). Additionally, retinopathy has also been observed in young DD patients, leading to vision loss. Emerging evidence show LAMP2-deficiency to be involved in oxidative stress (ROS) but the mechanism remains obscure. In the present study, we found that tert-butyl hydroperoxide or antimycin A induced more cell death in LAMP2 knockdown (LAMP2-KD) than in control ARPE-19 cells. Mechanistically, LAMP2-KD reduced the concentration of cytosolic cysteine, resulting in low glutathione (GSH), inferior antioxidant capability and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. ROS induced RPE cell death through ferroptosis. Inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) increased lethality in LAMP2-KD cells compared to controls. Cysteine and glutamine supplementation restored GSH and prevented ROS-induced cell death of LAMP2-KD RPE cells.
Greiner JV, Glonek T, Korb DR, Lindsay ME, Oliver PJ. Corneal absorption of glycerylphosphorylcholine. Exp Eye Res 2020;192:107932.Abstract
This study documents the absorption of glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) into corneas ex vivo. Corneas in quadruplicate were incubated in preservation medium containing 30 mM GPC, which is used as a reference marker. The GPC reference marker is used to calibrate P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral chemical-shift positions for identification of phosphatic metabolites and to calculate intracorneal pH in intact tissues ex vivo. Following baseline NMR ex vivo analysis, corneas were stored in eye bank chambers in preservation medium containing 30 mM GPC at 4 °C overnight for 8 h. After returning to room temperature, NMR analysis was repeated on the same corneas in fresh GPC-free preservation medium. NMR analysis also was performed on the 30 mM GPC preservation medium alone from the eye bank chambers for detection of the GPC signal. The elevated GPC signal unexpectedly persisted in corneas incubated at 4 °C overnight even though GPC was not present in the fresh GPC-free preservation medium. In fact, the concentration of GPC in the intact cornea was many times higher than that found in the cornea endogenously. The levels of phosphatic metabolites and the energy modulus, after subtracting the spectral contribution of the 30 mM exogenous GPC, as well as the intracorneal pH remained unchanged from pre-refrigeration analyses. Corneas also retained transparency through the time-course of this study irrespective of temperature or change in temperature. The GPC signal in the NMR analysis of the preservation medium from the eye bank chambers was nearly undetectable. GPC was unexpectedly absorbed into the corneal tissue without detectable metabolic or physical toxicity. The intracorneal uptake of GPC at reduced temperatures parallels the increase in GPC that occurs naturally in muscle tissue in animals during wintering periods and the very high concentration of GPC in sperm, a cryogenically compatible cell, suggestive of a potential role for GPC in cryopreservation.
Dagi LR, Velez FG, Archer SM, Atalay HT, Campolattaro BN, Holmes JM, Kerr NC, Kushner BJ, MacKinnon SE, Paysse EA, Pihlblad MS, Pineles SL, Strominger MB, Stager DR, Stager D, Capo H. Adult Strabismus Preferred Practice Pattern®. Ophthalmology 2020;127(1):P182-P298.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Afrogheh AH, Kidd M, Eagle RC, Pai SI, Faquin WC. PD-L1 and PD-L2 Expression Levels Are Low in Primary and Secondary Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas of the Orbit: Therapeutic Implications. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;36(5):444-450.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if there is a biologic rationale for using checkpoint inhibitor drugs targeting programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the orbit. METHODS: Twenty-three cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the orbit (13 primary lacrimal gland, 5 secondarily extending into the orbit, and 5 unspecified) were examined histopathologically. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8 was performed. Charts were reviewed for clinical correlations. RESULTS: Expression of PD-L1 and of PD-L2 was overall low in adenoid cystic carcinoma (mean expression 1.4 ± 0.9 of 5 for PD-L1, mean 0.83 ± 1.1 of 5 for PD-L2), and tumor-infiltrating CD8-positive T-lymphocytes were sparse (mean 1.1 ± 0.51 of 3). Only 13 of the 23 (57%) cases expressed PD-L1 as a combined positive score ≥1 of cells. No associations were found between expression levels of these markers and patient sex, tumor site of origin, Tumor, Node, Metastasis stage, or patient outcome. A significant association was observed between stromal PD-L1 expression and tumor histopathologic subtype (p = 0.05), and between tumor PD-L1 expression and prior exposure to radiation (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Checkpoint inhibitor drugs may have limited impact in the treatment and clinical course of orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma based on the low frequency of CD8 infiltrate and low expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. Pretreatment with radiation, however, may improve tumor response to checkpoint inhibitor drugs.
Chen CT, Schultz JA, Haven SE, Wilhite B, Liu C-H, Chen J, Hibbeln JR. Loss of RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) selectively lowers docosahexaenoic acid in developing cerebellum. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2020;152:102036.Abstract
Deficiency in retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) of staggerer mice results in extensive granule and Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum as well as in learned motor deficits, cognition impairments and perseverative tendencies that are commonly observed in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The effects of RORα on brain lipid metabolism associated with cerebellar atrophy remain unexplored. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of RORα deficiency on brain phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and compositions. Staggerer mice (Rora) and wildtype littermates (Rora) were fed n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) containing diets ad libitum. At 2 months and 7 or more months old, brain total phospholipid fatty acids were quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. In the cerebellum, all fatty acid concentrations were reduced in 2 months old mice. Since total fatty acid concentrations were significantly different at 2-month-old, we examined changes in fatty acid composition. The composition of ARA was not significantly different between genotypes; though DHA composition remained significantly lowered. Despite cerebellar atrophy at >7-months-old, cerebellar fatty acid concentrations had recovered comparably to wildtype control. Therefore, RORα may be necessary for fatty acid accretions during neurodevelopment. Specifically, the effects of RORα on PUFA metabolisms are region-specific and age-dependent.
Perez-Cervantes C, Smith LA, Nadadur RD, Hughes AEO, Wang S, Corbo JC, Cepko C, Lonfat N, Moskowitz IP. Enhancer transcription identifies -regulatory elements for photoreceptor cell types. Development 2020;147(3)Abstract
Identification of cell type-specific regulatory elements (CREs) is crucial for understanding development and disease, although identification of functional regulatory elements remains challenging. We hypothesized that context-specific CREs could be identified by context-specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiling, based on the observation that active CREs produce ncRNAs. We applied ncRNA profiling to identify rod and cone photoreceptor CREs from wild-type and mutant mouse retinas, defined by presence or absence, respectively, of the rod-specific transcription factor (TF) -dependent ncRNA expression strongly correlated with epigenetic profiles of rod and cone photoreceptors, identified thousands of candidate rod- and cone-specific CREs, and identified motifs for rod- and cone-specific TFs. Colocalization of NRL and the retinal TF CRX correlated with rod-specific ncRNA expression, whereas CRX alone favored cone-specific ncRNA expression, providing quantitative evidence that heterotypic TF interactions distinguish cell type-specific CRE activity. We validated the activity of novel -dependent ncRNA-defined CREs in developing cones. This work supports differential ncRNA profiling as a platform for the identification of cell type-specific CREs and the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying TF-dependent CRE activity.
Papadopoulos Z. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration and its association with Alzheimer's disease. Curr Aging Sci 2020;Abstract
In developed countries, people of advanced age go permanently blind most often due to age-related macular degeneration, while at global level, this disease is the third major cause of blindness, after cataract and glaucoma, according to the World Health Organisation. The number of individuals believed to suffer from the disease throughout the world has been approximated at 50 million. Age-related macular degeneration is classified as non-neovascular (dry, non-exudative) and neovascular (wet, exudative). The exudative form is less common than the non-exudative as it accounts for approximately 10 percent of the cases of the disease. However, it can be much more aggressive and results in a rapid and severe loss of central vision. Similarly with age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease is a late-onset, neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Both of them are associated with age and share several features, including the presence of extracellular abnormal deposits associated with neuronal degeneration, drusen, and plaques, respectively. The present review article highlights the pathogenesis, the clinical features and the imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. A thorough overview of the effectiveness of anti-VEGF agents as well as of other treatment modalities that have either lost favour or are rarely used is provided in detail. Additionally, the common histologic, immunologic, and pathogenetic features of Alzheimer's disease and age-related macular degeneration are discussed in depth.
Glassman AR, Beaulieu WT, Stockdale CR, Beck RW, Bressler NM, Labriola LT, Melia M, Oliver K, Sun JK. Effect of telephone calls from a centralized coordinating center on participant retention in a randomized clinical trial. Clin Trials 2020;:1740774519894229.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In clinical trials, participant retention is critical to reduce bias and maintain statistical power for hypothesis testing. Within a multi-center clinical trial of diabetic retinopathy, we investigated whether regular phone calls to participants from the coordinating center improved long-term participant retention. METHODS: Among 305 adults in the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Retina Network Protocol S randomized trial, 152 participants were randomly assigned to receive phone calls at baseline, 6 months, and annually through 3 years (annual contact group) while 153 participants were assigned to receive a phone call at baseline only (baseline contact group). All participants could be contacted if visits were missed. The main outcomes were visit completion, excluding deaths, at 2 years (the primary outcome time point) and at 5 years (the final time point). RESULTS: At baseline, 77% (117 of 152) of participants in the annual contact group and 76% (116 of 153) in the baseline contact group were successfully contacted. Among participants in the annual contact group active at each annual visit (i.e. not dropped from the study or deceased), 85% (125 of 147), 79% (108 of 136), and 88% (110 of 125) were contacted successfully by telephone around the time of the 1-, 2-, and 3-year visits, respectively. In the annual and baseline contact groups, completion rates for the 2-year primary outcome visit were 88% (129 of 147) versus 87% (125 of 144), respectively, with a risk ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.93-1.10,  = .81). At 5 years, the final study visit, participant completion rates were 67% (96 of 144) versus 66% (88 of 133) with a risk ratio of 1.01 (95% confidence interval = 0.85-1.19,  = .93). At 2 years, the completion rate of participants successfully contacted at baseline was 89% (202 of 226) versus 80% (52 of 65) among those not contacted successfully (risk ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 0.98-1.27,  = .09); at 5 years, the completion percentages by baseline contact success were 69% (148 of 213) versus 56% (36 of 64; risk ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 0.98-1.56,  = .08). CONCLUSION: Regular phone calls from the coordinating center to participants during follow-up in this randomized clinical trial did not improve long-term participant retention.
Lambert SR, VanderVeen DK, Aakalu VK, Kim SJ. Reply. Ophthalmology 2020;127(1):e8-e9.
Yu M, Lee S-M, Lee HS, Amouzegar A, Nakao T, Chen Y, Dana R. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonism Ameliorates Dry Eye Disease by Inhibiting Antigen-Presenting Cell Maturation and T Helper 17 Cell Activation. Am J Pathol 2020;190(1):125-133.Abstract
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease, including dry eye disease (DED), but little is known about the contribution of substance P (SP) to DED. In this study, we investigated the expression of SP at the ocular surface and evaluated its effect on maturation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), the key cell component involved in the induction of type 17 helper T-cell (Th17) response in DED. The effect of topical blockade of SP signaling was further investigated using neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) inhibitors on APC maturation, Th17 cell activation, and disease severity in a mouse model of DED. The results demonstrate that SP is constitutively expressed at the ocular surface, and trigeminal ganglion neurons are the major source of SP in DED. SP derived from trigeminal ganglion enhanced the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II maturation marker by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, an effect that is abrogated by blockade of SP signaling using NK1R antagonist spantide. Finally, using a well-established murine model of DED, topical treatment of DED mice with NK1R antagonists CP-99,994 and L-733,060 suppressed APC acquisition of major histocompatibility complex class II, reduced Th17 cell activity, and ameliorated DED severity. These findings are of translational value, as they suggest that antagonizing NK1R-mediated SP signaling may be an effective strategy in suppressing Th17-mediated ocular surface disease.