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Guindolet D, Woodward AM, Gabison EE, Argüeso P. Glycogene Expression Profile of Human Limbal Epithelial Cells with Distinct Clonogenic Potential. Cells 2022;11(9)Abstract
Glycans function as valuable markers of stem cells but also regulate the ability of these cells to self-renew and differentiate. Approximately 2% of the human genome encodes for proteins that are involved in the biosynthesis and recognition of glycans. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of a small subset of glycogenes in human limbal epithelial cells with distinct clonogenic potential. Individual clones were classified as abortive or clonogenic, based on the fraction of the terminal colonies produced; clones leading exclusively to terminal colonies were referred to as abortive while those with half or fewer terminal colonies were referred to as clonogenic. An analysis of glycogene expression in clonogenic cultures revealed a high content of transcripts regulating the galactose and mannose metabolic pathways. Abortive clones were characterized by increased levels of GCNT4 and FUCA2, genes that are responsible for the branching of mucin-type O-glycans and the hydrolysis of fucose residues on N-glycans, respectively. The expansion of primary cultures of human limbal epithelial cells for 10 days resulted in stratification and a concomitant increase in MUC16, GCNT4 and FUCA2 expression. These data indicate that the clonogenic potential of human limbal epithelial cells is associated with specific glycosylation pathways. Mucin-type O-glycan branching and increased fucose metabolism are linked to limbal epithelial cell differentiation.
Chang DS-T, Jiang Y, Kim JA, Huang S, Munoz B, Aung T, He M, Foster PJ, Friedman D. Cataract progression after Nd:YAG laser iridotomy in primary angle-closure suspect eyes. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is performed in primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) eyes to prevent acute angle-closure attacks. However, accelerated cataractogenesis is a potential risk of the procedure that may result in decreased visual acuity. We aimed to assess the long-term impact of LPI on cataract formation in Chinese PACS. METHODS: In the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial, eligible bilateral PACS participants received LPI in one randomly selected eye, while the fellow eye remained untreated. Cataract was graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III, and progression was defined as an increase in grade by at least two units in any category or cataract surgery. RESULTS: In total, 889 participants were randomly assigned to LPI in one eye only (mean age 59±5 years, 83% female). At 72 months, treated eyes had slightly higher average nuclear grades (p<0.001). However, there were no differences between eyes for predefined cataract progression (cumulative probability at 72 months: 21.2% in LPI vs 19.4% in control, p=0.401) or cataract surgery (1% for both). While LPI-treated eyes had a 10% higher risk of progression over 6 years (HR=1.10 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.36)), this was not statistically significant. Visual acuity at 72 months was similar in treated and untreated eyes (p=0.43). CONCLUSION: Although lenses were graded on average as slightly more opaque in laser-treated eyes, prophylactic neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet LPI did not cause significant cataract progression. Our results suggest that LPI treatment of asymptomatic narrow angles does not increase the risk of developing clinically meaningful cataract worsening over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45213099.
Wu M, Yu Z, Matar DY, Karvar M, Chen Z, Ng B, Aoki S, Haug V, Orgill DP, Panayi AC. Human Amniotic Membrane Promotes Angiogenesis in an Oxidative Stress Chronic Diabetic Murine Wound Model. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2022;Abstract
Objective: The development of animal models, which adequately replicate the pathophysiology of chronic wounds, has been challenging. In this study, we utilized an oxidative stress (OS) murine model, which was previously developed by our group, to study the effect of a human amniotic membrane (AM) on chronic wound healing. Approach: Forty-five diabetic (genetically obese leptin receptor-deficient mice [db/db]) mice were separated into three groups. Thirty mice received an OS regimen and a 1 - × 1 cm2 full-thickness excisional dorsal wound. The wounds were either covered with AM and occlusive dressing (db/dbOS-AM) or occlusive dressing only (db/dbOS). Fifteen mice did not receive the OS regimen, and were covered with AM and occlusive dressing (db/db-AM). The wounds were photographed, and tissue was harvested at various time points. Results: Vascular density was higher in the AM-treated groups (db/dbOS-AM: 34 ± 12; db/db-AM: 37 ± 14; vs. db/dbOS: 19 ± 9 cluster of differentiation 31 [CD31+]/high power field [HPF] photograph; p = 0.04 and p = 0.003). Vessel maturity was lowest in the db/dbOS group (21% ± 4%; vs. db/dbOS-AM: 38% ± 10%, p = 0.004; db/db-AM: 40% ± 11%, p = 0.0005). Leukocyte infiltration was higher in the AM groups (db/dbOS-AM: 15 ± 4; db/db-AM: 16 ± 4 vs. db/dbOS: 8 ± 3 lymphocyte common antigen [CD45+]/HPF; p = 0.005 and p = 0.06). AM upregulated various proangiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and downregulated genes involved in chronicity, such as osteopontin, as visualized through proteome analysis and western blotting. Cell death was lower in the AM groups (db/dbOS-AM: 28 ± 10, db/db-AM: 7 ± 5 vs. db/dbOS: 17% ± 9% Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling [TUNEL+]; p = 0.03 and p < 0.0001). Innovation: This study offers new insight on the mechanisms of action of human AM in chronic wound healing. Conclusion: AM treatment promoted healing in mice with complex chronic wounds. The AM stimulated angiogenesis through upregulation of proangiogenic factors, improving the wound milieu by increasing leukocyte and growth factor delivery and decreasing cell death.
Friedman DS, Chang DS, Jiang Y, Huang S, Kim JA, Munoz B, Aung T, He M, Foster PJ. Acute Angle Closure Attacks Are Uncommon in Primary Angle-Closure Suspects: The Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of blindness worldwide that carries an excess risk of severe, bilateral visual impairment. A common concern among clinicians is precipitating acute angle closure (AAC) attacks by mydriasis. We evaluated the risk of AAC after pharmacologic dilation in Chinese individuals classified as bilateral primary angle-closure suspects (PACS). DESIGN: Randomized interventional controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 889 bilateral PACS aged between 50 and 70 years were identified through community screening in Guangzhou, China and enrolled in the study. METHODS: In the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention (ZAP) Trial, bilateral PACS were treated by laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in one randomly selected eye, with the fellow eye serving as an untreated control. Over 72 months of follow-up, participants had their pupils pharmacologically dilated six times with 5% phenylephrine and 0.5% tropicamide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and risk of post-mydriasis AAC in LPI-treated and untreated control PACS eyes. RESULTS: One bilateral AAC attack occurred after mydriasis at the two-week post-LPI visit. No other AAC events occurred in LPI-treated eyes. In untreated eyes, four additional attacks occurred: two after dilation (one at 54- and one at 72-months follow-up) and two spontaneously. The risk of post-mydriasis AAC in untreated eyes was one attack in 1,587 dilations. The risk of spontaneous AAC in untreated eyes was 0.44 per 1000 eye-years (95% CI: 0.11-1.77 per 1000 eye-years). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of an incident AAC attack in PACS eyes was extremely low, even in a higher-risk group with repeated pharmacologic pupillary dilation over six years of follow-up. Prophylactic LPI reduced this small but real risk.
Wang Z, Wiggs JL, Aung T, Khawaja AP, Khor CC. The genetic basis for adult onset glaucoma: Recent advances and future directions. Prog Retin Eye Res 2022;:101066.Abstract
Glaucoma, a diverse group of eye disorders that results in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells, is the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness. Apart from age and ancestry, the major risk factor for glaucoma is increased intraocular pressure (IOP). In primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the anterior chamber angle is open but there is resistance to aqueous outflow. In primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), crowding of the anterior chamber angle due to anatomical alterations impede aqueous drainage through the angle. In exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma, deposition of white flaky material throughout the anterior chamber directly interfere with aqueous outflow. Observational studies have established that there is a strong hereditable component for glaucoma onset and progression. Indeed, a succession of genome wide association studies (GWAS) that were centered upon single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have yielded more than a hundred genetic markers associated with glaucoma risk. However, a shortcoming of GWAS studies is the difficulty in identifying the actual effector genes responsible for disease pathogenesis. Building on the foundation laid by GWAS studies, research groups have recently begun to perform whole exome-sequencing to evaluate the contribution of protein-changing, coding sequence genetic variants to glaucoma risk. The adoption of this technology in both large population-based studies as well as family studies are revealing the presence of novel, protein-changing genetic variants that could enrich our understanding of the pathogenesis of glaucoma. This review will cover recent advances in the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma, primary angle-closure glaucoma and exfoliation glaucoma, which collectively make up the vast majority of all glaucoma cases in the world today. We will discuss how recent advances in research methodology have uncovered new risk genes, and how follow up biological investigations could be undertaken in order to define how the risk encoded by a genetic sequence variant comes into play in patients. We will also hypothesise how data arising from characterising these genetic variants could be utilized to predict glaucoma risk and the manner in which new therapeutic strategies might be informed.
Fonseca MI, Nouck-A-Nwal A, Ambrosio L, Altschwager P, Hansen RM, Fulton AB, Akula JD. The relation of the multifocal electroretinographic response to macular layer volume. Doc Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the association of the multifocal electroretinographic (mfERG) response amplitude with the volumes of the inner, postreceptor, and photoreceptor retinal layers in the region stimulated by each mfERG element. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, young adult control subjects were studied. Each of the 103 hexagonal elements of the standard, scaled mfERG were aligned, where possible, with patches of retina imaged using optical coherence tomography. Stimuli falling on the fovea and on the optic nerve head were excluded. Linear mixed-effects modeling was then used to derive estimated coefficients (voltage/volume) for the mfERG response throughout the full 80 ms standard epoch. The resulting predicted response amplitudes originating in each layer were then compared to pharmacologically "dissected" mfERGs obtained from other studies in monkey eyes. RESULTS: Across the duration of the response, the amplitude of the modeled contribution from (1) the inner retina was small-to-modest, (2) the postreceptor retina was larger and contained two prominent peaks, and (3) the photoreceptor response was the largest and most closely paralleled the overall (i.e., intact) response, including late-appearing oscillations. The significance of each layer's contribution was greatest when the absolute amplitude of that layer's response was largest. The contribution of the inner retina was maximally significant in the interval between the prominent troughs and peaks of the intact response. The contributions of the postreceptor and photoreceptor responses were maximally significant at the prominent troughs and peaks of the intact response. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the model were in good overall agreement with previous interpretations of the cellular contributions to the mfERG. There was also fair agreement with pharmacologically dissected monkey mfERG responses. Thus, the estimations of the contributions of the retinal layers to the mfERG so produced appeared plausible.
Hynnekleiv L, Magno M, Vernhardsdottir RR, Moschowits E, Tønseth KA, Dartt DA, Vehof J, Utheim TP. Hyaluronic acid in the treatment of dry eye disease. Acta Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
Dry eye disease (DED) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition affecting several hundred million people worldwide. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan commonly used in the treatment of DED. This review aims to critically evaluate the literature on the safety and efficacy of artificial tears containing HA used in DED treatment. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, including MEDLINE, and in Embase via Ovid with the search term: "(hyaluronic acid OR hyaluronan OR hyaluronate) AND (dry eye OR sicca)". A total of 53 clinical trials are included in this review, including eight placebo-controlled trials. Hyaluronic acid concentrations ranged from 0.1% to 0.4%. Studies lasted up to 3 months. A broad spectrum of DED types and severities was represented in the reviewed literature. No major complications or adverse events were reported. Artificial tears containing 0.1% to 0.4% HA were effective at improving both signs and symptoms of DED. Two major gaps in the literature have been identified: 1. no study investigated the ideal drop frequency for HA-containing eyedrops, and 2. insufficient evidence was presented to recommend any specific HA formulation over another. Future investigations assessing the optimal drop frequency for different concentrations and molecular weights of HA, different drop formulations, including tonicity, and accounting for DED severity and aetiology are essential for an evidence-based, individualized approach to DED treatment.
Bloom JR, Castillejos AG, Jones B, Patel N, Rosenstein BS, Stock RG. Ocular complications with the use of radium-223: a case series. Radiat Oncol 2022;17(1):97.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Radium-223 is used for the treatment of osseous metastases in castrate-resistant prostate cancer, and has been shown to increase time to the first skeletal-related event, reduce the rate of hospitalization, and improve quality of life. It is well tolerated, with hematologic toxicity as the main adverse event. Thus far, no ocular complication has been reported in the literature after initial administration of radium-223 with a single case reported of ocular complications after a patient's second course of radium-223. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present three cases of ocular complications after the use of radium-223 in patients with metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma. Ocular complications presented as blurry vision, and formal diagnosis included uveitis and hyphema. CONCLUSIONS: Documentation of adverse events is exceedingly important due to the high incidence of metastatic prostate cancer and increasing interest for the use of radium-223 in other osteoblastic disease. The authors postulate that these ocular complications may be a result of radiation's potential effect on neovascularization, polypharmacy, or the biomolecular effects of radium-223 on integral signaling proteins, potentially coupled with poor underlying ocular health.
Maher MD, Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Collens SI, Gilbert AL, Torun N, Klein JP, Sobrin L, Buchbinder BR, Gupta R, Mukerji SS, Chwalisz BK. Clinical and neuroradiologic characteristics in varicella zoster virus reactivation with central nervous system involvement. J Neurol Sci 2022;437:120262.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of patients with varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation involving the cranial nerves and central nervous system (CNS). METHODS: This is a retrospective, multi-center case-series of 37 patients with VZV infection affecting the cranial nerves and CNS. RESULTS: The median age was 71 years [IQR 51.5-76]; 21 (57%) were men. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was available in 24/37 (65%); median CSF white blood cell count was 11 [IQR 2-23] cells/μL and protein was 45.5 [IQR 34.5-75.5] mg/dL. VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were positive in 6/21 (29%) CSF and 8/9 (89%) ocular samples. Clinical involvement included the optic nerve in 12 (32%), other cranial nerves in 20 (54%), brain parenchyma in 12 (32%) and spinal cord or nerve roots in 4 (11%). Twenty-seven/28 immunocompetent patients' MRIs were available for review (96%). Of the 27, 18 had T1 postcontrast fat saturated sequences without motion artifact to evaluate for cranial nerve enhancement and optic perineuritis (OPN). Eight/18 (44%) demonstrated OPN. All 8 experienced vision loss: 3 optic neuritis, 1 acute retinal necrosis, and 3 CNS vasculitis with 1 central and 1 branch retinal artery occlusion and 1 uveitis. Diplopic patients had cranial nerve and cavernous sinus enhancement. All immunosuppressed patients were imaged. Seven/9 (88%) had extensive neuraxis involvement, including encephalitis, vasculitis and transverse myelitis; one case had OPN. CONCLUSION: OPN is a frequent manifestation in VZV-associated vision loss among immunocompetent patients. Immunosuppressed patients had greater neuraxis involvement. Optimizing MRI protocols may improve early diagnosis in VZV reactivation.
Okumura Y, Inomata T, Midorikawa-Inomata A, Sung J, Fujio K, Akasaki Y, Nakamura M, Iwagami M, Fujimoto K, Eguchi A, Miura M, Nagino K, Hirosawa K, Huang T, Kuwahara M, Dana R, Murakami A. DryEyeRhythm: A reliable and valid smartphone application for the diagnosis assistance of dry eye. Ocul Surf 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: Undiagnosed or inadequately treated dry eye disease (DED) decreases the quality of life. We aimed to investigate the reliability, validity, and feasibility of the DryEyeRhythm smartphone application (app) for the diagnosis assistance of DED. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional, observational, single-center study recruited 82 participants (42 with DED) aged ≥20 years (July 2020-May 2021). Patients with a history of eyelid disorder, ptosis, mental disease, Parkinson's disease, or any other disease affecting blinking were excluded. Participants underwent DED examinations, including the Japanese version of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (J-OSDI) and maximum blink interval (MBI). We analyzed their app-based J-OSDI and MBI results. Internal consistency reliability and concurrent validity were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Pearson's test, respectively. The discriminant validity of the app-based DED diagnosis was assessed by comparing the results of the clinical-based J-OSDI and MBI. The app feasibility and screening performance were evaluated using the precision rate and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: The app-based J-OSDI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.874). The app-based J-OSDI and MBI were positively correlated with their clinical-based counterparts (r = 0.891 and r = 0.329, respectively). Discriminant validity of the app-based J-OSDI and MBI yielded significantly higher total scores for the DED cohort (8.6 ± 9.3 vs. 28.4 ± 14.9, P < 0.001; 19.0 ± 11.1 vs. 13.2 ± 9.3, P < 0.001). The app's positive and negative predictive values were 91.3% and 69.1%, respectively. The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.910 (0.846-0.973) with concurrent use of the app-based J-OSDI and MBI. CONCLUSIONS: DryEyeRhythm app is a novel, non-invasive, reliable, and valid instrument for assessing DED.
Huang JJ, Geduldig JE, Jacobs EB, Tai TYT, Ahmad S, Chadha N, Buxton DF, Vinod K, Wirostko BM, Kang JH, Wiggs JL, Ritch R, Pasquale LR. Head and neck region dermatological UV-related cancers are associated with exfoliation syndrome in a clinic-based population. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relation between UV-associated dermatological carcinomas (basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) and exfoliation syndrome with or without glaucoma (XFS/XFG). DESIGN: Case-control study. Subjects, participants, and controls:321 participants with XFS/XFG, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and control subjects (XFS/XFG = 98, POAG = 117, control = 106, ages 50-90) were recruited between 2019-2021. METHODS: Subjects were recruited for a cross-sectional survey assessing medical history, maximum known intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, Humphrey Visual Field 24-2 (HVF), propensity to tan or burn in early life, history of BCC and/or SCC and XFS/XFG diagnosis. We generated multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, medical history, eye color, hair color, and likeliness of tanning vs burning at a young age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: History of diagnosed XFS/XFG. RESULTS: Any history of BCC/SCC in the head and neck region was associated with a 2-fold higher risk for having XFS/XFG versus having POAG or being a control subject (odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04 - 3.89) in multivariable-adjusted analysis. Additionally, we observed a dose-response association where the chance of having XFS/XFG was higher by 67% per head and neck BCC/SCC occurrence (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.09 - 2.56). When we excluded POAG participants, head and neck BCC/SCC was associated with 2.8-fold higher risk of XFS/XFG (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.12 - 7.02) and each additional occurrence of head and neck BCC/SCC had a 2-fold higher risk for XFS/XFG (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.09 - 3.58). The association between head and neck region BCC/SCC and POAG compared to control subjects was null (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.58 - 3.48). When BCC/SCC located anywhere on the body was considered, there was a non-significant higher risk of XFS/XFG compared to having POAG or being a control subject (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 0.88 - 3.09). CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck region BCC/SCCs are associated with a higher risk for having XFS/XFG. These findings support prior evidence that head and neck UV exposure may be a risk factor for XFS.
Li S, Tang L, Zhou J, Anchouche S, Li D, Yang Y, Liu Z, Wu J, Hu J, Zhou Y, Yin J, Liu Z, Li W. Sleep deprivation induces corneal epithelial progenitor cell over-expansion through disruption of redox homeostasis in the tear film. Stem Cell Reports 2022;17(5):1105-1119.Abstract
Sleep deficiency, a common public health problem, causes ocular discomfort and affects ocular surface health. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we identified that short-term sleep deprivation (SD) resulted in hyperproliferation of corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) in mice. The expression levels of p63 and Keratin 14, the biomarkers of CEPCs, were upregulated in the corneal epithelium after short-term SD. In addition, SD led to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and subsequent decrease in antioxidant capacity, in the tear film. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could directly stimulate the proliferation of CEPCs in vivo and in vitro. Topical treatment of antioxidant L-glutathione preserved the over-proliferation of CEPCs and attenuated corneal epithelial defects in SD mice. Moreover, the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is essential to ROS-stimulated cell proliferation in CEPCs. However, long-term SD ultimately led to early manifestation of limbal stem cell deficiency.
Lin LY, Reshef ER, Lansberg MP, Barshak MB, Chwalisz BK, Holbrook EH, Wolkow N. Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in the Setting of Cocaine-Induced Orbital and Sinonasal Inflammation. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;Abstract
Intranasal cocaine abuse can lead to significant sinus and orbital complications, including optic neuropathy. A 46-year-old man with a history of recurrent cocaine-induced sino-orbital inflammation and infection with bony destruction presented with acute, painless, vision loss. Examination revealed no light perception vision. MRI of the orbits demonstrated new restricted diffusion of the right optic nerve on diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient sequences, consistent with posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. This is the first among cases of cocaine-induced optic neuropathy in the literature to illustrate ischemic changes on MRI in the optic nerve, highlighting the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient sequences when optic neuropathy is suspected and further suggesting an underlying ischemic etiology in similar cases.

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