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Farhat W, Yeung V, Ross A, Kahale F, Boychev N, Kuang L, Chen L, Ciolino JB. Advances in biomaterials for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Biomater Sci 2022;10(19):5391-5429.Abstract
Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Although traditional chemotherapy has shown some success in retinoblastoma management, there are several shortcomings to this approach, including inadequate pharmacokinetic parameters, multidrug resistance, low therapeutic efficiency, nonspecific targeting, and the need for adjuvant therapy, among others. The revolutionary developments in biomaterials for drug delivery have enabled breakthroughs in cancer management. Today, biomaterials are playing a crucial role in developing more efficacious retinoblastoma treatments. The key goal in the evolution of drug delivery biomaterials for retinoblastoma therapy is to resolve delivery-associated obstacles and lower nonlocal exposure while ameliorating certain adverse effects. In this review, we will first delve into the historical perspective of retinoblastoma with a focus on the classical treatments currently used in clinics to enhance patients' quality of life and survival rate. As we move along, we will discuss biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Various aspects of biomaterials for drug delivery will be dissected, including their features and recent advances. In accordance with the current advances in biomaterials, we will deliver a synopsis on the novel chemotherapeutic drug delivery strategies and evaluate these approaches to gain new insights into retinoblastoma treatment.
Shi H, Yin Z, Koronyo Y, Fuchs D-T, Sheyn J, Davis MR, Wilson JW, Margeta MA, Pitts KM, Herron S, Ikezu S, Ikezu T, Graham SL, Gupta VK, Black KL, Mirzaei M, Butovsky O, Koronyo-Hamaoui M. Regulating microglial miR-155 transcriptional phenotype alleviates Alzheimer's-induced retinal vasculopathy by limiting Clec7a/Galectin-3+ neurodegenerative microglia. Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022;10(1):136.Abstract
Single cell RNA sequencing studies identified novel neurodegeneration-associated microglial (MGnD/DAM) subtypes activated around cerebral amyloid plaques. Micro-RNA (miR)-155 of the TREM2-APOE pathway was shown to be a key transcriptional regulator of MGnD microglial phenotype. Despite growing interest in studying manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the retina, a CNS organ accessible to noninvasive high-resolution imaging, to date MGnD microglia have not been studied in the AD retina. Here, we discovered the presence and increased populations of Clec7a+ and Galectin-3+ MGnD microglia in retinas of transgenic APPSWE/PS1L166P AD-model mice. Conditionally targeting MGnD microglia by miR-155 ablation via the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 system in APPSWE/PS1L166P mice diminished retinal Clec7a+ and Galectin-3+ microglial populations while increasing homeostatic P2ry12+ microglia. Retinal MGnD microglia were often adhering to microvessels; their depletion protected the inner blood-retina barrier and reduced vascular amyloidosis. Microglial miR-155 depletion further limits retinal inflammation. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed enhanced retinal PI3K-Akt signaling and predicted IL-8 and Spp1 decreases in mice with microglia-specific miR-155 knockout. Overall, this study identified MGnD microglia in APPSWE/PS1L166P mouse retina. Transcriptional regulation of these dysfunctional microglia mitigated retinal inflammation and vasculopathy. The protective effects of microglial miR-155 ablation should shed light on potential treatments for retinal inflammation and vascular damage during AD and other ocular diseases.
Oke I, Heidary G, Mantagos IS, Shah AS, Hunter DG. A decline in the strabismus surgical experience of ophthalmology residents in the United States from 2010 to 2019. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
Subspecialty exposure during residency can influence the future pursuit of fellowship training. In this study, we compared the trends in strabismus surgical experience reported by graduating ophthalmology residents in the United States with other categories of ophthalmic surgery. Over the 10-year period (2010-2019), there was a decline in the total number of strabismus procedures performed during residency by ophthalmology residents graduating in a given year (1.4 fewer cases per year; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6 [P < 0.001]). Although several surgical categories experienced a decrease in cases performed in the assistant role, strabismus surgery was the only category with a decrease in cases performed in the surgeon role (0.4 fewer cases per year; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5 [P < 0.001]).
Xu C, Prager AJ, Alonso CD, Pawar AS. Insights From the Eye for Patients With Kidney Transplant. Transplant Proc 2022;Abstract
The eye and the kidney share structural and developmental similarities on a cellular and clinical level, and they are often affected by the same disease processes. Performing an eye exam to look for signs of conditions such as hypertension and diabetes can provide a helpful window into the health of the kidney. Patients with kidney transplants (KT) are a unique population that require close monitoring. These patients are maintained on a number of immunosuppressive medications and may face complications such as medication side effects, infections, and graft rejection. Patients with KT are at higher risk of both infectious and noninfectious eye conditions related to underlying systemic disease or use of immunosuppressive medications. Screening for eye conditions is important because preserving visual function is integral to quality of life, and also because the eye exam can help with early detection and treatment of systemic conditions. Here we describe some of the common eye findings and conditions in patients with KT. We recommend that patients with KT receive annual eye exams, and we hope that the information provided here can help nephrologists become more familiar with eye findings and identify situations where a referral to ophthalmology is warranted.
Valdes L, Cox JT, Yang J, Susarla G, Han S, Papaliodis GN, Sobrin L. Anti-infliximab antibodies and clinical response in noninfectious uveitis and scleritis patients treated with infliximab: A retrospective review. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101634.Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the clinical response to infliximab in ocular inflammation patients who develop anti-infliximab antibodies (AIA) vs. those patients who do not develop AIA. Observations: A retrospective review was performed of patients treated with infliximab for noninfectious uveitis (NIU) or scleritis. Clinical response was determined as a composite clinical endpoint and classified as complete, partial, or absent. Nine of 32 infliximab-treated patients (28%) were found to develop AIA. Among the AIA-positive patients, clinical response was complete in 7 patients (78%) and partial in 2 patients (22%). Among the AIA-negative patients, clinical response was complete in 15 patients (65%), partial in 6 patients (26%) and absent in 2 patients (9%). Serum infliximab levels tended to decrease with appearance of AIA but rarely became undetectable. Conclusions and Importance: In this pilot study, AIA-positive patients did not have diminished clinical response to infliximab when compared with AIA-negative patients. There was a high rate of complete clinical response to infliximab in this group of NIU and scleritis patients. Approximately a quarter of patients developed AIA. AIA-positive patients did not have diminished rates of clinical response when compared with AIA-negative patients. This suggests that routine AIA monitoring may not be clinically useful, although validation of this finding in larger cohorts is necessary.
Botten N, Hodges RR, Bair J, Utheim TP, Serhan CN, Yang M, Dartt DA. Resolvin D2 uses multiple Ca2+ -dependent signaling pathways to stimulate mucin secretion in rat and human conjunctival goblet cells. J Cell Physiol 2022;237(10):3816-3833.Abstract
The mucin layer of the tear film is produced by goblet cells in the conjunctiva to protect the ocular surface and maintain homeostasis. The pro-resolving lipid mediator resolvin D2 (RvD2) biosynthesized from an omega 3 fatty acid actively terminates inflammation and regulates mucin secretion from conjunctival goblet cells. Our objective was to determine which Ca2+ -dependent signaling pathways RvD2 uses to stimulate conjunctival goblet cell function (CGC). We hypothesize that RvD2 activates multiple intracellular Ca2+ signaling pathways to stimulate CGC secretion. Rat and human CGCs were cultured from conjunctival explants. The amount of RvD2 receptor GPR18/DRV2 message and protein were determined. The intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) was measured in CGCs using a fluorescent Ca2+ dye and mucin secretion was determined by measuring protein secretion enzymatically with a lectin. Goblet cells were incubated with signaling pathway inhibitors before stimulation with RvD2 and [Ca2+ ]i or secretion was measured. In rat and human CGCs RvD2 receptor and in rat CGCs IP3 (a molecule that releases Ca2+ from intracellular organelles) receptors 1-3 were detected. In both species of CGC RvD2 increased [Ca2+ ]i similarly to RvD1. In rat CGCs, the increase in [Ca2+ ]i and secretion stimulated by RvD2 was significantly blocked by inhibitors to phospholipase (PL-) C and IP3 -receptor, but not protein kinase C. Increase in [Ca2+ ]i was blocked by the PLD inhibitor, but not the PLA2 inhibitor. Secretion was blocked by PLA2 inhibitor, but not the PLD inhibitor. An inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor blocked the increase in [Ca2+ ]i by RvD2 in both species of CGCs. In CGCs RvD2 activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways that are Ca2+ -dependent, along with one Ca2+ -independent and one cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent pathway. Activation of these pathways stimulate mucin secretion from rat and human CGCs into the tear film contributing to ocular surface homeostasis and health.
Wong KA, Benowitz LI. Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Axon Regeneration after Optic Nerve Injury: Role of Inflammation and Other Factors. Int J Mol Sci 2022;23(17)Abstract
The optic nerve, like most pathways in the mature central nervous system, cannot regenerate if injured, and within days, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that extend axons through the optic nerve, begin to die. Thus, there are few clinical options to improve vision after traumatic or ischemic optic nerve injury or in neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma, dominant optic neuropathy, or optic pathway gliomas. Research over the past two decades has identified several strategies to enable RGCs to regenerate axons the entire length of the optic nerve, in some cases leading to modest reinnervation of di- and mesencephalic visual relay centers. This review primarily focuses on the role of the innate immune system in improving RGC survival and axon regeneration, and its synergy with manipulations of signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, and cell-extrinsic suppressors of axon growth. Research in this field provides hope that clinically effective strategies to improve vision in patients with currently untreatable losses could become a reality in 5-10 years.
Chapman JJ, Heidary G, Gise R. An overview of peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(6):494-500.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the ophthalmic findings associated with peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures (PHOMS) in both adult and pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: PHOMS have recently been identified in a number of different ophthalmic disease entities ranging from nonpathologic to pathologic, including but not limited to anatomic abnormalities (tilting in myopia), optic nerve head drusen, optic disc edema from inflammation (optic neuritis, white dot syndromes), vascular insults (ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal vascular occlusion), and papilledema. The mechanism underlying the formation of PHOMS has not been fully elucidated although it has been hypothesized that PHOMS occur secondary to axoplasmic stasis from crowding at the optic nerve head. SUMMARY: Although the clinical significance of the presence of PHOMS remains unclear, PHOMS are associated with several disease processes. Understanding the mechanism behind their formation and their impact on optic nerve head structure and visual function may be relevant in patients with optic nerve head pathology. The presence of PHOMS may also correlate with disease severity and duration. Future studies to evaluate whether the formation of PHOMS may be useful as an early indicator of disease or a prognostic tool are warranted.
Chwalisz BK, Levy M. The Treatment of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review. J Neuroophthalmol 2022;42(3):292-296.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) is an important etiology of neurologic morbidity and specifically, atypical, and relapsing optic neuritis. This review summarizes acute treatment and long-term prevention approaches in MOGAD. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were manually searched and reviewed. RESULTS: We review the evidence base for acute treatment of MOGAD with corticosteroids and adjunct therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasma exchange. We discuss the utility of prolonged corticosteroid tapering after the acute attack. We then summarize the commonly used disease-modifying treatments for relapsing MOGAD, including chronic low-dose corticosteroids, classic antirheumatic immune suppressants, biologic agents, and IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: While acute MOGAD attacks are usually treated with high-dose IV corticosteroids, longer oral corticosteroid tapers may prevent rapid relapse. Multiple long-term treatment strategies are being employed in recurrent MOGAD, with IVIg is emerging as probably the most effective therapy.
Ho TC, Maamari RN, Kossler AL, Sears CM, Freitag SK, Reshef ER, Shinder R, Rootman DB, Diniz SB, Kahana A, Schlachter D, Do TH, Kally P, Turner S, Mokhtarzadeh A, Harrison AR, Hwang CJ, Kim HJ, Avila SA, Thomas DA, Magazin M, Wester ST, Lee WW, Clauss KD, Holds JB, Sniegowski M, Compton CJ, Briggs C, Malik AI, Lucarelli MJ, Burkat CN, Patel LG, Couch SM. Outcomes of Patients With Thyroid Eye Disease Partially Treated With Teprotumumab. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: In response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, teprotumumab production was temporarily halted with resources diverted toward vaccine production. Many patients who initiated treatment with teprotumumab for thyroid eye disease were forced to deviate from the standard protocol. This study investigates the response of teprotumumab when patients receive fewer than the standard 8-dose regimen. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional cohort study included patients from 15 institutions with active or minimal to no clinical activity thyroid eye disease treated with the standard teprotumumab infusion protocol. Patients were included if they had completed at least 1 teprotumumab infusion and had not yet completed all 8 planned infusions. Data were collected before teprotumumab initiation, within 3 weeks of last dose before interruption, and at the visit before teprotumumab reinitiation. The primary outcome measure was reduction in proptosis more than 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included change in clinical activity score (CAS), extraocular motility restriction, margin reflex distance-1 (MRD1), and reported adverse events. RESULTS: The study included 74 patients. Mean age was 57.8 years, and 77% were female. There were 62 active and 12 minimal to no clinical activity patients. Patients completed an average of 4.2 teprotumumab infusions before interruption. A significant mean reduction in proptosis (-2.9 mm in active and -2.8 mm in minimal to no clinical activity patients, P < 0.01) was noted and maintained during interruption. For active patients, a 3.4-point reduction in CAS (P < 0.01) and reduction in ocular motility restriction (P < 0.01) were maintained during interruption. CONCLUSIONS: Patients partially treated with teprotumumab achieve significant reduction in proptosis, CAS, and extraocular muscle restriction and maintain these improvements through the period of interruption.
Agarwal A, Singh RB, Erckens RJ, Berendschot TTJM, Webers CAB. Quantitative Analysis of the Choroidal Vascularity in Eyes with Uveitis Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography: A Systematic Review. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-12.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify techniques used for quantification of choriocapillaris (CC) flow in eyes with uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), report reliability and level of correlation with techniques such as indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). METHODS: A systematic search of several databases was done. The studies were analyzed for techniques of measurement, reliability, and correlation with other modalities. Risk of bias assessment was performed. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included. CC vessel density (7 studies) and flow deficit area (4 studies) were the most used indices. There was significant heterogeneity in the studies due to differences in the scan protocol, thresholding strategy, and analysis. Comparison with ICGA was performed by only one study, and reliability indices were reported by only two studies. CONCLUSION: OCTA is a useful tool to measure the CC vascularity in eyes with uveitis. However, standardized acquisition and analysis protocols are needed.

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