Tomita Y, Cagnone G, Fu Z, Cakir B, Kotoda Y, Asakage M, Wakabayashi Y, Hellström A, Joyal J-S, Talukdar S, Smith LEH, Usui Y. Vitreous metabolomics profiling of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia 2021;64(1):70-82.Abstract
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) with retinal neovascularisation (NV) is a leading cause of vision loss. This study identified a set of metabolites that were altered in the vitreous humour of PDR patients compared with non-diabetic control participants. We corroborated changes in vitreous metabolites identified in prior studies and identified novel dysregulated metabolites that may lead to treatment strategies for PDR. METHODS: We analysed metabolites in vitreous samples from 43 PDR patients and 21 non-diabetic epiretinal membrane control patients from Japan (age 27-80 years) via ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We then investigated the association of a novel metabolite (creatine) with retinal NV in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Creatine or vehicle was administered from postnatal day (P)12 to P16 (during induced NV) via oral gavage. P17 retinas were quantified for NV and vaso-obliteration. RESULTS: We identified 158 metabolites in vitreous samples that were altered in PDR patients vs control participants. We corroborated increases in pyruvate, lactate, proline and allantoin in PDR, which were identified in prior studies. We also found changes in metabolites not previously identified, including creatine. In human vitreous humour, creatine levels were decreased in PDR patients compared with epiretinal membrane control participants (false-discovery rate <0.001). We validated that lower creatine levels were associated with vascular proliferation in mouse retina in the OIR model (p = 0.027) using retinal metabolomics. Oral creatine supplementation reduced NV compared with vehicle (P12 to P16) in OIR (p = 0.0024). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results suggest that metabolites from vitreous humour may reflect changes in metabolism that can be used to find pathways influencing retinopathy. Creatine supplementation could be useful to suppress NV in PDR. Graphical abstract.
Carreno-Galeano JT, Dohlman TH, Yin J, Dana R. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency Associated With Herpes Keratitis. Cornea 2021;40(8):967-971.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the demographic features and clinical characteristics of patients with herpes keratitis (HK) and limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and identify possible factors associated with development of LSCD after HK. METHODS: In this retrospective case-series study, records of patients with a clinical diagnosis of HK seen at Massachusetts Eye and Ear over a 5-year period were reviewed for evidence of LSCD. Patient demographics, medical history, treatment, and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) were recorded. RESULTS: We identified 626 patients with HK. Fifty-seven had been diagnosed with LSCD (9.3%). Thirteen percent of patients with herpes zoster keratitis (N= 25) and 7% of patients with herpes simplex keratitis (N= 32) had LSCD (P = 0.01). Keratitis caused by herpes zoster virus [odds ratios (OR), 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-3.19; P = 0.01], stromal involvement (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.27-4.18; P = 0.02), and the use of topical antihypertensives (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.27-4.18; P = 0.02) were found to be associated with a higher likelihood of developing LSCD. The final logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) BCVA was significantly lower in patients with LSCD compared with those without LSCD with a mean BCVA of 1.34 ± 1.52 LogMar (∼20/200) as compared to 0.18 ± 0.54 LogMar (∼20/30 ± 20/60) in those patients without LSCD (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that HK may be a risk factor for development of LSCD. Patients with HK should be monitored for the development of LSCD to reduce the risk of chronic ocular surface morbidity.
Chiou CA, Wang M, Taniguchi EV, Silva RNE, Khoroshilov A, Li D, Wang H, Greenstein SH, Brauner SC, Turalba AV, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ. Characterization of Prelaminar Wedge-Shaped Defects in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. Curr Eye Res 2021;46(6):895-902.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the clinical relevance of prelaminar wedge defects (PLWDs) detected by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, PLWDs were defined as triangular-shaped defects at the surface of the optic nerve prelaminar tissue, not adjacent to blood vessels, present on cross-sectional SS-OCT scans. Two observers masked to diagnosis independently reviewed scans to detect PLWDs and lamina cribrosa defects. History of disc hemorrhage, occurring within 2 years prior to imaging, was obtained from chart review. One eye per subject was randomly selected. Two-sided t-tests, analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to explore demographic and clinical features associated with PLWDs. RESULTS: 40 POAG and 23 control eyes were included. PLWDS were found in 27.5% of POAG (n = 11) and 4.3% of controls (n = 1, p = .04). Eyes with repeat SS-OCT imaging (7 POAG and 0 controls) had persistent PLWDs. More POAG eyes with PLWDs had a history of disc hemorrhage (45.5%) than POAG eyes without PLWDs (3.4%, p = .004). On multivariable analysis, compared to POAG without PLWDs, POAG with PLWDs had increased odds of observed disc hemorrhage (OR = 21.6, 95% CI, 2.2-589.0, p = .02) after adjusting for age, gender, visual field mean deviation and maximum intraocular pressure (IOP). POAG with PLWDs had more lamina cribrosa defects (45.5%) than POAG without PLWDs (3.4%, p = .01) but did not differ significantly from controls (8.7%, p = .07). Compared to all patients without PLWDs, patients with PLWDs had increased odds of having lamina cribrosa defects (OR = 44.8; 95% CI, 6.3-703.6, p < .001) after adjusting for age, gender, and maximum IOP. CONCLUSIONS: PLWDs were more frequently found in POAG than control eyes and were associated with a history of disc hemorrhage and lamina cribrosa defects. PLWDs may be a useful imaging biomarker of glaucomatous damage.
Silva RNE, Chiou CA, Wang M, Devlin J, Li D, Lovelace S, Wang H, Greenstein SH, Brauner SC, Shen LQ. Quantification of the Peripapillary Microvasculature in Eyes with Glaucomatous Paracentral Visual Field Loss. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;4(3):286-294.Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantify abnormalities in the peripapillary microvasculature in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and paracentral visual field (VF) loss. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three POAG patients, including 15 with paracentral VF loss and 18 with peripheral VF loss, and 31 control participants underwent swept-source OCT angiography (OCTA) of the peripapillary region. METHODS: The POAG groups were matched by VF mean deviation (MD). The peripapillary microvasculature from the internal limiting membrane to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) interface was quantified within a 0.70-mm annulus around Bruch's membrane opening after removal of large vessels. Both vessel density (VD) and the integrated OCTA by ratio analysis signal (IOS) suggestive of flow were measured. Regional VD and IOS were measured from the affected hemisphere corresponding to the VF hemifield of more severe loss, which was used to calculate the paracentral total deviation (PaTD), or total deviation within the central 10°. One eye per participant was included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Difference in peripapillary OCTA measurements between paracentral and peripheral VF loss groups and correlation of peripapillary VD and IOS with PaTD. RESULTS: The POAG groups had matched VF MD (-3.1 ± 2.5 dB paracentral vs. -2.3 ± 2.0 dB peripheral; P = 0.31), did not differ in average RNFL thickness (71.1 ± 14.7 μm vs. 78.1 ± 15.0 μm; P = 0.55), but differed in age (59.2 ± 9.6 years paracentral vs. 67.4 ± 6.6 years peripheral; P = 0.02). Compared with control participants, both paracentral and peripheral VF loss groups showed reduced VD (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) and IOS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.01, respectively) in the affected hemisphere. Compared with POAG eyes with peripheral VF loss, the paracentral group showed reduced peripapillary VD (38.0 ± 2.0%, 35.0 ± 2.2%, respectively; P = 0.001) and IOS (44.3 ± 3.1%, 40.4 ± 4.0%, respectively; P = 0.02) in the affected hemisphere. Among all POAG eyes, peripapillary VD and IOS of the affected hemisphere correlated significantly with functional measurement of paracentral loss (PaTD, r = 0.40, P = 0.02; r = 0.45, P = 0.008; respectively). These correlations remained significant after adjusting for age (r = 0.41, P = 0.02; r = 0.47, P = 0.01; respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Regional peripapillary microvasculature showed decreased VD and flow in POAG with paracentral loss, supporting its importance in this glaucoma subtype.
Pennington JD, Bleier BS, Freitag SK. Endoscopic endonasal resection of orbital schwannoma assisted with small-incision medial orbitotomy: case series and surgical technique. Orbit 2021;40(6):536-542.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe a surgical approach for the resection of schwannomas occurring in the medial aspect of the orbit and to review a series of patients who underwent this novel technique. METHODS: This retrospective, non-comparative case series presents the surgical technique and outcomes of patients who underwent removal of a medial orbital schwannoma via an endoscopic endonasal approach combined with a small-incision medial orbitotomy by a team of two surgeons (BSB and SKF). Patient demographics, pre- and post-operative clinical examination findings, visual field testing, and radiographic studies were reviewed. Operative reports were reviewed for technical details and complications. RESULTS: The patients included a 12 year-old male, 73 year-old female and 8 year-old male. Indications for surgery included: decreased visual acuity, diplopia, proptosis and Humphrey visual field (HVF) deficit, in the presence of a medial orbital biopsy-proven schwannoma. The surgical approach in all three patients was primarily endoscopic endonasal. Additionally, two had transcaruncular orbitotomies and one had a small-incision medial lid crease orbitotomy to assist with lateral tumor dissection. Tumor resection was complete in one case and near-total in two cases. There were no intra-operative surgical complications. Average resected specimen volume was 3.41 cm3 ± 2.20. All patients had post-operative improvement in visual acuity (VA) and proptosis. Post-operative follow-up intervals were 27.5 months, 12.3 months and 3.5 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Resection of orbital schwannomas using an endoscopic endonasal approach with small-incision medial transorbital assistance is a safe and effective option for a multidisciplinary surgical team.
Argüeso P. Galectins as Regulators of Corneal Inflammation. Curr Opin Physiol 2021;19:17-21.Abstract
The cornea is a transparent avascular tissue on the anterior segment of the eye responsible for providing refractive power and forming a protective barrier against the external environment. Infectious and inflammatory conditions can compromise the structure of the cornea, leading to visual impairment and blindness. Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins expressed by immune and non-immune cells that play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunity. In this brief review, we discuss how different members of this family of proteins affect both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the cornea, particularly in the context of infection, transplantation and wound healing. We further describe recent research showing beneficial effects of galectin-targeted therapy in corneal diseases.
Hainsworth DP, Gao X, Bebu I, Das A, Olmos de Koo L, Barkmeier AJ, Tamborlane W, Lachin JM, Aiello LP, and and of and Group DCCTF-up EDICR. Refractive Error and Retinopathy Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study. Ophthalmology 2021;128(4):554-560.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between refractive error and diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Type I diabetes individuals with serial refractive error and DR stage measurements over 30 years in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) follow-up study. METHODS: Stage of DR was measured every 6 months from standard fundus photographs, and refractive error was measured annually during the 6.5 years of DCCT; then, both were staggered every fourth year during EDIC with the full cohort measured at EDIC years 4 and 10. Outcomes of DR were 2- or 3-step progression, presence of proliferative DR (PDR), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), diabetic macular edema (DME), or ocular surgery. Myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia were defined as a spherical equivalent of ≤-0.5, >-0.5 and <0.5, and ≥0.5, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each outcome separately, Cox proportional hazard (PH) models assessed the association between the refractive error status and the subsequent risk of that outcome, both without and with adjustment for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Hyperopia was associated with a higher risk of 2-step progression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.59), 3-step progression (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05-1.73), and PDR (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92) compared with emmetropia in unadjusted models. These associations remained significant after adjustment for DCCT treatment group, cohort, age, sex, smoking, duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, albumin excretion rate, and DCCT/EDIC mean updated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (2-step progression: HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.58; 3-step progression: HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68; PDR: HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.00-1.90). Myopia was not associated with any of the 5 DR outcomes in the unadjusted models and only marginally associated with 2-step progression (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.24) in the adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia is not associated with DR progression risk. Hyperopia is an independent risk factor for 2-step and 3-step DR progression and PDR.
Tomkins-Netzer O, Lightman SL, Burke AE, Sugar EA, Lim LL, Jaffe GJ, Altaweel MM, Kempen JH, Holbrook JT, Jabs DA, and Group MSTTF-up SR. Seven-Year Outcomes of Uveitic Macular Edema: The Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial and Follow-up Study Results. Ophthalmology 2021;128(5):719-728.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of uveitic macular edema (ME). DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up of a cohort of participants in a randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 248 eyes of 177 participants with uveitic ME enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial and Follow-up Study. METHODS: OCT measurements, taken at baseline and annually, were graded by reading center graders masked to clinical data. Macular edema was defined as a center macular thickness (CMT) ≥240 μm on time-domain OCT or time-domain OCT equivalent. Resolution of ME was defined as normalization of macular thickness on OCT. Relapse of ME was defined as increase in macular thickness to ≥240 μm in an eye that previously had resolution. Visual acuity was measured at each visit with logarithmic visual acuity charts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution and relapse of ME. Visual acuity. RESULTS: Among 227 eyes with ME followed ≥1 year, the cumulative percent of eyes with ME resolving at any point during 7 years was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89-97). Epiretinal membranes on OCT were associated with a lower likelihood of ME resolution (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-1.01; P = 0.05). Among 177 eyes with resolved ME, the cumulative percent with relapse within 7 years was 43% (95% CI, 32-51). Eyes in which ME resolved gained a mean of 6.24 letters (95% CI, 4.40-8.09; P < 0.001) compared with eyes that remained free from ME during the 1-year follow-up intervals, whereas eyes in which ME did not resolve experienced no gain in vision (mean change -1.30 letters; 95% CI, -2.70 to 0.09; P = 0.065), and eyes that developed ME during the year (incident or relapsed) experienced a mean loss of -8.65 letters (95% CI, -11.5 to -5.84, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Given sufficient time and treatment, nearly all uveitic ME resolves, but episodes of relapse were common. Visual acuity results were better among eyes with resolved ME, suggesting that control of inflammation and resolution of ME might be visually relevant treatment targets.
Fan N-W, Li J, Mittal SK, Foulsham W, Elbasiony E, Huckfeldt RM, Chauhan SK, Chen Y. Characterization of Clinical and Immune Responses in an Experimental Chronic Autoimmune Uveitis Model. Am J Pathol 2021;191(3):425-437.Abstract
Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening intraocular inflammatory disease. For >30 years, the mouse model of experimental autoimmune uveitis has been employed to investigate disease mechanisms and test immunotherapeutic approaches. However, inflammation in this model is self-limited, and does not replicate the chronic, insidious nature prevalent in the human disease. Herein, a robust and reliable model of chronic autoimmune uveitis was developed and characterized in two strains of wild-type mice by modifying interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein dose and peptide fragments from conventional experimental autoimmune uveitis models. In both of these murine strains, immunization with our modified protocols resulted in a slowly progressive uveitis, with retinal scars and atrophy observed in the chronic stage by fundoscopy. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated decreased retinal thickness in chronic autoimmune uveitis mice, and electroretinography showed significantly reduced amplitudes of dark-adapted a- and b-waves and light-adapted b-waves. Histologic examination revealed prominent choroiditis with extensive retinal damage. Flow cytometry analysis showed substantially increased numbers of CD44IL-17IFN-γ memory T-helper 17 (Th17) cells in the retina, cervical lymph nodes, inguinal lymph nodes, and spleen. These data establish new modified protocols for inducing chronic uveitis in wild-type mice, and demonstrate a predominant memory Th17 cell response, suggesting an important role for memory Th17 cells in driving chronic inflammation in autoimmune uveitis.
Lu Y, Wang JC, Cui Y, Zhu Y, Zeng R, Lu ES, Katz R, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Kim LA, Miller JW, Miller JB. A quantitative comparison of four optical coherence tomography angiography devices in healthy eyes. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021;259(6):1493-1501.Abstract
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel imaging modality for the diagnosis of chorioretinal diseases. A number of FDA-approved OCT-A devices are currently commercially available, each with unique algorithms and scanning protocols. Although several published studies have compared different combinations of OCT-A machines, there is a lack of agreement on the consistency of measurements across OCT-A devices. Therefore, we conducted a prospective quantitative comparison of four available OCT-A platforms. METHODS: Subjects were scanned on four devices: Optovue RTVue-XR, Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 module, Zeiss Plex Elite 9000 Swept-Source OCT, and Topcon DRI-OCT Triton Swept-Source OCT. 3 mm × 3 mm images were utilized for analysis. Foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area was separately and independently measured by two investigators. Fractal dimension (FD), superficial capillary plexus (SCP), and deep capillary plexus (DCP) vessel densities (VD) were calculated from binarized images using the Fiji image processing software. SCP and DCP VD were further calculated after images were skeletonized. Repeated measures ANOVA, post hoc tests, and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Sixteen healthy eyes from sixteen patients were scanned on the four devices. Images of five eyes from the Triton device were excluded due to poor image quality; thus, the authors performed two sets comparisons, one with and one without the Triton machine. FAZ area showed no significant difference across devices with an ICC of > 95%. However, there were statistically significant differences for SCP and DCP VD both before and after skeletonization (p < 0.05). Fractal analysis revealed no significant difference of FD at the SCP; however, a statistically significant difference was found for FD at the DCP layer (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that FAZ measurements were consistent across all four devices, while significant differences in VD and FD measurements existed. Therefore, we suggest that for both clinical follow-up and research studies, FAZ area is a useful parameter for OCT-A image analysis when measurements are made on different machines, while VD and FD show significant variability when measured across devices.
Franco J, Lee NG. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting as recurrent, multifocal orbital myositis. Orbit 2021;40(6):529-531.Abstract
A 43-year-old woman was referred with a 10 month history of persistent pain in the left orbit. Two years prior, she experienced similar pain in the right orbit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time revealed an enlarged right medial rectus muscle. She was diagnosed with idiopathic orbital myositis and was successfully treated with oral corticosteroids. A year later, she developed symptoms in the left orbit with similar imaging findings. For ten months, she remained on high dose corticosteroids for presumed left medial rectus myositis before presenting to our service. Computed tomography (CT) imaging after corticosteroid taper revealed enlarged left medial rectus and left lateral rectus muscles. Orbital biopsy established a diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), for which she was successfully treated with rituximab. This case underscores the importance of not only proceeding with biopsy in atypical cases of orbital myositis but to also taper steroids prior to biopsy.
Chen CL, McLeod SD, Lietman TM, Shen H, Boscardin JW, Peggy Chang H-Y, Whooley MA, Gelb AW, Lee SJ, Dudley AR. Preoperative Medical Testing and Falls in Medicare Beneficiaries Awaiting Cataract Surgery. Ophthalmology 2021;128(2):208-215.Abstract
PURPOSE: Delaying cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of falls, but whether routine preoperative testing delays cataract surgery long enough to cause clinical harm is unknown. We sought to determine whether the use of routine preoperative testing leads to harm in the form of delayed surgery and falls in Medicare beneficiaries awaiting cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study using 2006-2014 Medicare claims. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries 66+ years of age with a Current Procedural Terminology claim for ocular biometry. METHODS: We measured the mean and median number of days between biometry and cataract surgery, calculated the proportion of patients waiting ≥ 30 days or ≥ 90 days for surgery, and determined the odds of sustaining a fall within 90 days of biometry among patients of high-testing physicians (testing performed in ≥ 75% of their patients) compared with patients of low-testing physicians. We also estimated the number of days of delay attributable to high-testing physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of falls occurring between biometry and surgery, odds of falling within 90 days of biometry, and estimated delay associated with physician testing behavior. RESULTS: Of 248 345 beneficiaries, 16.4% were patients of high-testing physicians. More patients of high-testing physicians waited ≥ 30 days and ≥ 90 days to undergo surgery (31.4% and 8.2% vs. 25.0% and 5.5%, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both). Falls before surgery in patients of high-testing physicians increased by 43% within the 90 days after ocular biometry (1.0% vs. 0.7%; P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio of falling within 90 days of biometry in patients of high-testing physicians versus low-testing physicians was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.19; P = 0.008). After adjusting for surgical wait time, the odds ratio decreased to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.15; P = 0.06). The delay associated with having a high-testing physician was approximately 8 days (estimate, 7.97 days; 95% CI, 6.40-9.55 days; P < 0.0001). Other factors associated with delayed surgery included patient race (non-White), Northeast region, ophthalmologist ≤ 40 years of age, and low surgical volume. CONCLUSIONS: Overuse of routine preoperative medical testing by high-testing physicians is associated with delayed surgery and increased falls in cataract patients awaiting surgery.
Sinha S, Singh RB, Dohlman TH, Taketani Y, Yin J, Dana R. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Corneal Perforation in Chronic Ocular Graft-Versus-Host-Disease. Cornea 2021;40(7):877-882.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with corneal perforation in patients with chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). METHODS: We reviewed the case records of 405 patients diagnosed with chronic oGVHD over 8 years at a single academic center and assessed the prevalence of corneal perforation in the cohort. We reviewed patient demographics, indication for and type of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), time elapsed between HSCT and perforation, and clinical characteristics including oGVHD severity scores, ocular comorbidities, and topical medications at the time of perforation. Data were analyzed to determine the characteristics of patients with corneal perforation and establish the risk factors. RESULTS: Of the 405 patients with chronic oGVHD, 15 (3.7%) developed a corneal perforation. The mean age of patients at the time of perforation was 64 ± 11 years and 10 (67%) were men. The median time to corneal perforation was 3.3 years post-HSCT. Although perforation occurred unilaterally in all cases, 44% had epithelial defects and 38% had stromal abnormalities in the contralateral eye. Of the patients with corneal perforation, 9 (60%) had a National Institute of Health oGVHD severity score of 2 and 6 (40%) had a score of 3. Patients with chronic oGVHD on antiglaucoma drops had a significantly higher risk of corneal perforation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Corneal perforation is a rare but vision-threatening complication of chronic oGVHD. Our study emphasizes the need for frequent and long-term follow-up of patients with oGVHD regardless of the severity of disease. In particular, patients with chronic oGVHD on topical antiglaucoma medications should be monitored closely due to a higher risk for corneal perforation.
Ashraf M, Shokrollahi S, Pisig AU, Sampani K, AbdelAl O, Cavallerano JD, Robertson G, Fleming A, van Hemert J, Pitoc CM, Sun JK, Aiello LP, Silva PS. Retinal Vascular Caliber Association with Nonperfusion and Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Depends on Vascular Caliber Measurement Location. Ophthalmol Retina 2021;5(6):571-579.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association of retinal nonperfusion and diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity with location of vascular caliber measurement using ultrawide field (UWF) imaging. DESIGN: Retrospective image review. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: All images from subjects with same-day UWF fluorescein angiography (FA) and color imaging were evaluated. Predominantly peripheral lesions (PPL) and DR severity were graded from UWF color images. Nonperfusion was quantified using UWF-FA in defined retinal regions [posterior pole (PP), mid-periphery (MP), far-periphery (FP)]. Retinal vessel calibers were measured at an optic disc centered inner and outer zone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nonperfusion index (NPI) in the PP, MP and FP. Mean arteriole and venule diameter in the inner and outer zones. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-five eyes of 193 patients (24.9% mild nonproliferative DR [NPDR], 22.8% moderate NPDR, 37.5% severe NPDR and 14.7% proliferative DR [PDR]) were reviewed. No significant associations between inner zone arteriolar diameter and retinal NPI overall or in any retinal region. In the outer zone, eyes with thinnest arteriolar calibers (quartile 1) were associated with a 1.7- to 2.4-fold nonperfusion increase across all retinal regions compared to the remaining eyes (P = 0.002 [PP] to 0.048 [FP]). In the outer zone, the percentage of eyes in the thinnest quartile of retinal arteriolar diameter increased with worsening DR severity (mild NPDR: 10% vs PDR: 31%, P = 0.007). This association was not observed when measured within the inner zone (P = 0.129). All venular caliber associations were not statistically significant when corrected for potentially confounding factors. Thinner outer zone retinal arteriolar caliber (quartile 1) was more common in eyes with PPL compared to eyes without PPL (34.1% vs 20.8%, P = 0.017) as were thicker outer venular calibers (quartile 4) (33% vs 21.3%, P = 0.036). Presence of PPL was associated with thinner outer zone arteriolar caliber (109.7 ± 26.5μm vs 123.0 ± 29.5μm, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The association of vascular caliber with nonperfusion and DR severity differs based upon the retinal location at which vascular caliber is measured. Peripheral arterial narrowing is associated with increasing nonperfusion, worsening DR severity and presence of PPL. In contrast, inner zone retinal arteriolar caliber is not associated with these findings.