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Campbell AA, Jakobiec FA, Rashid A, Dana R, Yoon MK. Bilateral Sequential Dacryocystitis in a Patient With Graft-Versus-Host Disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(4):e89-92.Abstract

A 29-year-old woman with a history of 2 bone marrow transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia developed bilateral sequential dacryocystitis in the context of known ocular graft-versus-host disease. With each infection, the patient underwent uneventful dacryocystorhinostomy. Postoperatively, she developed severe dry eye disease requiring replacement of punctal plugs and use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem lens. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of the lacrimal sac showed a dense diffuse nonfollicular lymphocytic subepithelial infiltrate in the lacrimal sac that contained moderately more T-cells than B-cells. This is the first report of acute dacryocystitis associated with graft-versus-host disease. The authors caution that similar patients may develop worsening of ocular surface dryness due to restoration of normal lacrimal outflow.

Olivares AM, Moreno-Ramos OA, Haider NB. Role of Nuclear Receptors in Central Nervous System Development and Associated Diseases. J Exp Neurosci 2015;9(Suppl 2):93-121.Abstract

The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye. In addition, the review highlights the impact of mutations in NHRs on a spectrum of human diseases from autism to retinal degeneration.

Tabebordbar M, Zhu K, Cheng JKW, Chew WL, Widrick JJ, Yan WX, Maesner C, Wu EY, Xiao R, Ran AF, Cong L, Zhang F, Vandenberghe LH, Church GM, Wagers AJ. In vivo gene editing in dystrophic mouse muscle and muscle stem cells. Science 2015;Abstract

Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we develop and test a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonucleases coupled with paired guide RNAs flanking the mutated Dmd exon23 resulted in excision of intervening DNA and restored Dystrophin reading frame in myofibers, cardiomyocytes, and muscle stem cells following local or systemic delivery. AAV-Dmd CRISPR-treatment partially recovered muscle functional deficiencies and generated a pool of endogenously corrected myogenic precursors in mdx mouse muscle.

Wells JA, Glassman AR, Jampol LM, Aiello LP, Antoszyk AN, Baker CW, Bressler NM, Browning DJ, Connor CG, Elman MJ, Ferris FL, Friedman SM, Melia M, Pieramici DJ, Sun JK, Beck RW, Beck RW. Association of Baseline Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness With 1-Year Efficacy of Aflibercept, Bevacizumab, and Ranibizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;:1-8.Abstract

Importance: Comparisons of the relative effect of 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents to treat diabetic macular edema warrant further assessment. Objective: To provide additional outcomes from a randomized trial evaluating 3 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for diabetic macular edema within subgroups based on baseline visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) as evaluated on optical coherence tomography. Design, Setting, and Participants: Post hoc exploratory analyses were conducted of randomized trial data on 660 adults with diabetic macular edema and decreased VA (Snellen equivalent, approximately 20/32 to 20/320). The original study was conducted between August 22, 2012, and August 28, 2013. Analysis was conducted from January 7 to June 2, 2015. Interventions: Repeated 0.05-mL intravitreous injections of 2.0 mg of aflibercept (224 eyes), 1.25 mg of bevacizumab (218 eyes), or 0.3 mg of ranibizumab (218 eyes) as needed per protocol. Main Outcomes and Measures: One-year VA and CST outcomes within prespecified subgroups based on both baseline VA and CST thresholds, defined as worse (20/50 or worse) or better (20/32 to 20/40) VA and thicker (≥400 µm) or thinner (250 to 399 µm) CST. Results: In the subgroup with worse baseline VA (n = 305), irrespective of baseline CST, aflibercept showed greater improvement than bevacizumab or ranibizumab for several VA outcomes. In the subgroup with better VA and thinner CST at baseline (61-73 eyes across 3 treatment groups), VA outcomes showed little difference between groups; mean change was +7.2, +8.4, and +7.6 letters in the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively. However, in the subgroup with better VA and thicker CST at baseline (31-43 eyes), there was a suggestion of worse VA outcomes in the bevacizumab group; mean change from baseline to 1 year was +9.5, +5.4, and +9.5 letters in the aflibercept, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab groups, respectively, and VA letter score was greater than 84 (approximately 20/20) in 21 of 33 (64%), 7 of 31 (23%), and 21 of 43 (49%) eyes, respectively. The adjusted differences and 95% CIs were 39% (17% to 60%) for aflibercept vs bevacizumab, 25% (5% to 46%) for ranibizumab vs bevacizumab, and 13% (-8% to 35%) for aflibercept vs ranibizumab. Conclusions and Relevance: These post hoc secondary findings suggest that for eyes with better initial VA and thicker CST, some VA outcomes may be worse in the bevacizumab group than in the aflibercept and ranibizumab groups. Given the exploratory nature of these analyses and the small sample size within subgroups, caution is suggested when using the data to guide treatment considerations for patients. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01627249.

Boonsopon S, Maghsoudlou A, Kombo NE, Foster SC. A therapeutic trial of valganciclovir in patients with uveitis and positive Epstein-Barr virus early antigen D IgG titers. Eur J Ophthalmol 2015;26(1):30-5.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a therapeutic trial of valganciclovir in patients with uveitis with positive Epstein-Barr virus early antigen D immunoglobulin G titers (EBV EA-D). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 14 patients at the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution who had uveitis with positive EBV EA-D but negative studies for all other causes of uveitis and were treated with valganciclovir 450 mg twice a day or valganciclovir 900 mg twice a day between January 2010 and August 2014. RESULTS: Nine of 14 patients, who had presumed EBV reactivation with associated intraocular inflammation, were successfully treated with valganciclovir: 3 of these were treated with valganciclovir 450 mg twice a day and 6 were treated with valganciclovir 900 mg twice a day. Five of 14 patients failed to respond to valganciclovir with persistent inflammation after at least 2 weeks of valganciclovir therapy, and were subsequently treated with immunomodulatory therapy to control inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Uveitis can be caused by EBV infection/reactivation. A therapeutic trial with valganciclovir 450 mg twice a day for 1 month in patients with uveitis with positive EBV EA antibody may be beneficial.

Matsumoto H, Murakami Y, Kataoka K, Notomi S, Mantopoulos D, Trichonas G, Miller JW, Gregory MS, Ksander BR, Marshak-Rothstein A, Vavvas DG. Membrane-bound and soluble Fas ligands have opposite functions in photoreceptor cell death following separation from the retinal pigment epithelium. Cell Death Dis 2015;6:e1986.Abstract

Fas ligand (FasL) triggers apoptosis of Fas-positive cells, and previous reports described FasL-induced cell death of Fas-positive photoreceptors following a retinal detachment. However, as FasL exists in membrane-bound (mFasL) and soluble (sFasL) forms, and is expressed on resident microglia and infiltrating monocyte/macrophages, the current study examined the relative contribution of mFasL and sFasL to photoreceptor cell death after induction of experimental retinal detachment in wild-type, knockout (FasL-/-), and mFasL-only knock-in (ΔCS) mice. Retinal detachment in FasL-/- mice resulted in a significant reduction of photoreceptor cell death. In contrast, ΔCS mice displayed significantly more apoptotic photoreceptor cell death. Photoreceptor loss in ΔCS mice was inhibited by a subretinal injection of recombinant sFasL. Thus, Fas/FasL-triggered cell death accounts for a significant amount of photoreceptor cell loss following the retinal detachment. The function of FasL was dependent upon the form of FasL expressed: mFasL triggered photoreceptor cell death, whereas sFasL protected the retina, indicating that enzyme-mediated cleavage of FasL determines, in part, the extent of vision loss following the retinal detachment. Moreover, it also indicates that treatment with sFasL could significantly reduce photoreceptor cell loss in patients with retinal detachment.

Wolfe JM, Boettcher SEP, Josephs EL, Cunningham CA, Drew T. You look familiar, but I don't care: Lure rejection in hybrid visual and memory search is not based on familiarity. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2015;41(6):1576-87.Abstract

In "hybrid" search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets among distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, reaction times (RTs) in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this "familiarity"- operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared-influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase RTs. In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. (PsycINFO Database Record

Berry RH, Qu J, John SWM, Howell GR, Jakobs TC. Synapse Loss and Dendrite Remodeling in a Mouse Model of Glaucoma. PLoS One 2015;10(12):e0144341.Abstract

It has been hypothesized that synaptic pruning precedes retinal ganglion cell degeneration in glaucoma, causing early dysfunction to retinal ganglion cells. To begin to assess this, we studied the excitatory synaptic inputs to individual ganglion cells in normal mouse retinas and in retinas with ganglion cell degeneration from glaucoma (DBA/2J), or following an optic nerve crush. Excitatory synapses were labeled by AAV2-mediated transfection of ganglion cells with PSD-95-GFP. After both insults the linear density of synaptic inputs to ganglion cells decreased. In parallel, the dendritic arbors lost complexity. We did not observe any cells that had lost dendritic synaptic input while preserving a normal or near-normal morphology. Within the temporal limits of these observations, dendritic remodeling and synapse pruning thus appear to occur near-simultaneously.

Conlin PR, Asefzadeh B, Pasquale LR, Selvin G, Lamkin R, Cavallerano AA. Accuracy of a technology-assisted eye exam in evaluation of referable diabetic retinopathy and concomitant ocular diseases. Br J Ophthalmol 2015;99(12):1622-7.Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Digital retinal imaging using store-and-forward technology is used to screen for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Its usefulness in detecting non-diabetic eye diseases is uncertain. We determined the level of agreement between teleretinal imaging supplemented with visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements (ie, technology-assisted eye (TAE) exam) and a comprehensive eye exam in evaluation for DR and non-diabetic ocular conditions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study with two parallel evaluations. Patients with diabetes (n=317) had a TAE exam and a comprehensive eye exam on the same day. A subset of participants with normal baseline exams (n=72) had follow-up exams 1 year later. We measured the level of agreement for referable ocular findings. RESULTS: Agreement for referable ocular findings was moderate (n=389, agreement: 77%; κ: 0.55), due in part to ungradable exams (22%). However, about half of the ungradable exams had findings that warranted referral. There was substantial agreement for follow-up exams (n=72, agreement: 93%; κ: 0.63). Among all gradable exams (n=303), the TAE exam had 86% sensitivity and 84% specificity for referable ocular findings, with high agreement (≥94%) for DR and other major ocular diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: There was moderate-to-substantial agreement between a TAE exam and a comprehensive eye exam for referable ocular findings in patients with diabetes. Ungradable exams were a frequent marker of ocular pathology. Teleretinal imaging may be a useful evaluation for both diabetic and non-diabetic ocular conditions.

Kundu J, Michaelson A, Talbot K, Baranov P, Young MJ, Carrier RL. Decellularized retinal matrix: natural platforms for human retinal progenitor cell culture. Acta Biomater 2015;Abstract

Tissue decellularization strategies have enabled engineering of scaffolds that preserve native extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and composition. In this study, we developed decellularized retina (decell-retina) thin films. We hypothesized that these films, mimicking the retina niche, would promote human retinal progenitor cell (hRPC) attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Retinas isolated from bovine eyes were decellularized using 1% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and pepsin digested. The resulting decell-retina was biochemically assayed for composition and cast dried to develop thin films. Attachment, viability, morphology, proliferation and gene expression of hRPC cultured on the films were studied in vitro. Biochemical analyses of decell-retina compared to native retina indicated the bulk of DNA (94%) was removed, while the majority of sulfated GAGs (55%), collagen (83%), hyaluronic acid (87%), and key growth factors were retained. The decell-retina films supported hRPC attachment and growth, with cell number increasing 1.5-fold over a week. RT-PCR analysis revealed hRPC expression of rhodopsin, rod outer membrane, neural retina-specific leucine zipper neural and cone-rod homeobox gene on decell-retina films, indicating photoreceptor development. In conclusion, novel decell-retina films show promise as potential substrates for culture and/or transplantation of retinal progenitor cells to treat retinal degenerative disorders.

Bleier BS, Castelnuovo P, Battaglia P, Turri-Zanoni M, Dallan I, Metson R, Sedaghat AR, Stefko TS, Gardner PA, Snyderman CH, Nogueira JF, Ramakrishnan VR, Muscatello L, Lenzi R, Freitag S. Endoscopic endonasal orbital cavernous hemangioma resection: global experience in techniques and outcomes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015;Abstract

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic orbital surgery represents the next frontier in endonasal surgery. The current literature is largely composed of small, heterogeneous, case series with little consensus regarding optimal techniques. The purpose of this study was to combine the experience of multiple international centers to create a composite of the global experience on the endoscopic management of a single type of tumor, the orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of techniques for endoscopic OCH resection from 6 centers on 3 continents. Only primary data from strictly endoscopic resection of OCHs were included. Responses were analyzed to qualitatively identify points of both consensus and variability among the different groups. RESULTS: Data for a total of 23 patients, 10 (43.5%) male and 13 (56.5%) female were collected. The majority of lesions were intraconal (60.9%). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) surgical time was 150.7 ± 75.0 minutes with a mean blood loss of 82.7 ± 49.6 mL. Binarial approaches (26.1%) were used exclusively in the setting of intraconal lesions, which were associated with a higher rate of incomplete resection (31.3%), postoperative diplopia (25.0%), and the need for reconstruction (37.5%) than extraconal lesions. Orthotropia and symmetric orbital appearance were achieved in 60.9% and 78.3% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Extraconal lesions were managed similarly; however, greater variability was evident for intraconal lesions. These included the laterality and number of hands in the approach, methods of medial rectus retraction, and the need for reconstruction. The increased technical complexity and disparity of techniques in addressing intraconal OCHs suggests that continued research into the optimal management of this subclass of lesions is of significant priority.

for the Group WTDCCT/EDICR, Gubitosi-Klug RA, Sun W, Cleary PA, Braffett BH, Aiello LP, Das A, Tamborlane W, Klein R. Effects of Prior Intensive Insulin Therapy and Risk Factors on Patient-Reported Visual Function Outcomes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Cohort. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;:1-10.Abstract

Importance: Preservation of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus is critical. Interventions to improve glycemic control through early intensive treatment of diabetes reduce rates of severe retinopathy and preserve visual acuity. Objective: To assess the effects of prior intensive insulin treatment and risk factors on patient-reported visual function in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study of 1184 participants with type 1 diabetes from the DCCT/EDIC study (randomized clinical trial followed by an observational follow-up study) who completed the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) during EDIC years 17 through 20 (September 1, 2009, through April 30, 2014) in 28 institutions across the United States and Canada. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the composite NEI-VFQ-25 score. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity (measured by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocol), retinopathy level (determined by masked grading of stereoscopic color fundus photographs), and NEI-VFQ-25 subscale scores. The composite NEI-VFQ-25 scale and its subscales were scored 0 to 100, corresponding to poor to excellent function, respectively. Results: The overall average NEI-VFQ-25 score for 1184 DCCT/EDIC participants (mean [SD] age, 52.3 [6.9] years; 48% female) with a 30-year duration of diabetes was high (all participants: median, 91.7; interquartile range [IQR], 89.7-96.9; intensive treatment [n = 605]: median, 94.7; IQR, 91.0-97.2; conventional treatment [n = 579]: median, 94.0; IQR, 88.4-96.1; P = .006 for intensive vs conventional). After adjustment for sex, age, hemoglobin A1c level, and retinopathy level at DCCT baseline, the former intensive treatment group had a significant, albeit modest, improvement in overall NEI-VFQ-25 score compared with the former conventional diabetes treatment group (median difference, -1.0; 95% CI, -1.7 to -0.3; P = .006). This beneficial treatment effect was fully attributed to the prior glycemic control in DCCT (explained treatment effect: 100%). Those with visual acuity worse than 20/100 reported the largest decline in visual function (median difference, -21.0; 95% CI, -40.5 to -1.6; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In the DCCT/EDIC cohort, patient-reported visual function remains high in both treatment groups, comparable to previous reports of overall health-related quality of life. Intensive diabetes therapy modestly improved NEI-VFQ-25 score 30 years after the start of the DCCT, the benefit underestimated owing to more nonparticipants from the conventional treatment group. Visual acuity had the greatest effect on patient-reported visual function from among all risk factors. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00360815 and NCT00360893.

Yee KMP, Feener EP, Madigan M, Jackson NJ, Gao B-B, Ross-Cisneros FN, Provis J, Aiello LP, Sadun AA, Sebag J. Proteomic Analysis of Embryonic and Young Human Vitreous. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(12):7036-42.Abstract

PURPOSE: The proteomic profile of vitreous from second-trimester human embryos and young adults was characterized using mass spectrometry and analyzed for changes in protein levels that may relate to structural changes occurring during this time. This vitreous proteome was compared to previous reports to confirm proteins already identified and reveal novel ones. METHODS: Vitreous from 17 human embryos aged 14 to 20 weeks gestation (WG) and from a 12-, a 14-, a 15-, and a 28-year-old was individually analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Peptide spectral count associations with embryonic age were assessed using a general linear model of fold changes and Spearman's rank correlation. Differences between embryonic and young adult vitreous proteomes were also compared. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate three proteins in five additional fetal (10-18 WG) human eyes. RESULTS: There were 1217 proteins identified in fetal and young adult human vitreous, 206 after quantile normalization and variance filtering. In embryos, the peptide counts of 37 proteins changed significantly from 14 to 20 WG: 75.7% increased, 24.3% decreased. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of clusterin and cadherin in 10 and 14 WG eyes and their presence at 18 WG. Comparing embryonic to young adult vitreous, 47 proteins were significantly higher or lower. A total of 768 proteins not previously identified in the literature are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Proteins previously unreported in the human vitreous were identified. The human vitreous proteome undergoes significant changes during embryogenesis and young adulthood. A number of protein levels change considerably during the second trimester, with the majority decreasing.

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