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Fjaervoll K, Fjaervoll H, Magno M, Nøland ST, Dartt DA, Vehof J, Utheim TP. Review on the possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying visual display terminal-associated dry eye disease. Acta Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: Visual display terminal (VDT) use is a key risk factor for dry eye disease (DED). Visual display terminal (VDT) use reduces the blink rate and increases the number of incomplete blinks. However, the exact mechanisms causing DED development from VDT use have yet to be clearly described. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to conduct a review on pathophysiological mechanisms promoting VDT-associated DED. METHODS: A PubMed search of the literature investigating the relationship between dry eye and VDT was performed, and relevance to pathophysiology of DED was evaluated. FINDINGS: Fifty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Several pathophysiological mechanisms were examined, and multiple hypotheses were extracted from the articles. Visual display terminal (VDT) use causes DED mainly through impaired blinking patterns. Changes in parasympathetic signalling and increased exposure to blue light, which could disrupt ocular homeostasis, were proposed in some studies but lack sufficient scientific support. Together, these changes may lead to a reduced function of the tear film, lacrimal gland, goblet cells and meibomian glands, all contributing to DED development. CONCLUSION: Visual display terminal (VDT) use appears to induce DED through both direct and indirect routes. Decreased blink rates and increased incomplete blinks increase the exposed ocular evaporative area and inhibit lipid distribution from meibomian glands. Although not adequately investigated, changes in parasympathetic signalling may impair lacrimal gland and goblet cell function, promoting tear film instability. More studies are needed to better target and improve the treatment and prevention of VDT-associated DED.
Mitchell WG, Azuara-Blanco A, Foster PJ, Halawa O, Burr J, Ramsay CR, Cooper D, Cochran C, Norrie J, Friedman D, Chang D. Predictors of long-term intraocular pressure control after lens extraction in primary angle closure glaucoma: results from the EAGLE trial. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess baseline ocular parameters in the prediction of long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) control after clear lens extraction (CLE) or laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in patients with primary angle closure (PAC) disease using data from the Effectiveness of Early Lens Extraction for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE) tria. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of EAGLE data where we define the primary outcome of 'good responders' as those with IOP<21 mm Hg without requiring additional surgery and 'optimal responders' as those who in addition were medication free, at 36-month follow-up. Primary analysis was conducted using a multivariate logistic regression model to assess how randomised interventions and ocular parameters predict treatment response. RESULTS: A total of 369 patients (182 in CLE arm and 187 in LPI arm) completed the 36-month follow-up examination. After CLE, 90% met our predefined 'good response' criterion compared with 67% in the LPI arm, and 66% met 'optimal response' criterion compared with 18% in the LPI arm, with significantly longer drops/surgery-free survival time (p<0.05 for all). Patients randomised to CLE (OR=10.1 (6.1 to 16.8)), Chinese (OR=2.3 (1.3 to 3.9)), and those who had not previously used glaucoma drops (OR=2.8 (1.6 to 4.8)) were more likely to maintain long-term optimal IOP response over 36 months. CONCLUSION: Patients with primary angle closure glaucoma/PAC are 10 times more likely to maintain drop-free good IOP control with initial CLE surgery than LPI. Non-Chinese ethnicity, higher baseline IOP and using glaucoma drops prior to randomisation are predictors of worse long-term IOP response.
Ofuji Y, Katada Y, Tomita Y, Nagai N, Sonobe H, Watanabe K, Shinoda H, Ozawa Y, Negishi K, Tsubota K, Kurihara T. Non-Perfusion Area Index for Prognostic Prediction in Diabetic Retinopathy. Life (Basel) 2022;12(4)Abstract
Fundus fluorescent angiography is a standard examination in Japan that can directly visualize the circulatory failure in diabetic retinopathy but is not used in Western countries. In this study, we examine the relationship between the non-perfusion area in fundus fluorescent angiography and the progression of diabetic retinopathy. We evaluated 22 eyes between 22 patients who had their first fundus fluorescent angiography during a clinical episode at Keio University Hospital from January 2012 to May 2015, were diagnosed as having preproliferative diabetic retinopathy, and could be followed for at least three years. The non-perfusion area index (%) in nine segmented fundi in the initial fundus fluorescent angiography was calculated, and the progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy over three years was evaluated. Three out of the 22 eyes (13.6%) developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy over three years. The non-perfusion area index for the initial fundus fluorescent angiography was significantly associated with progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The non-perfusion area index in the posterior pole was most strongly correlated with the progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Thus, the non-perfusion area index in the posterior pole among those with preproliferative diabetic retinopathy may predict the progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the subsequent three years.
Xie L, Cen L-P, Li Y, Gilbert H-Y, Strelko O, Berlinicke C, Stavarache MA, Ma M, Wang Y, Cui Q, Kaplitt MG, Zack DJ, Benowitz LI, Yin Y. Monocyte-derived SDF1 supports optic nerve regeneration and alters retinal ganglion cells' response to Pten deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022;119(15):e2113751119.Abstract
SignificanceThe optic nerve conveys information from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to visual processing areas of the brain. Although this pathway normally cannot regenerate when injured nor in degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, this failure can be partially reversed by eliciting a controlled immune reaction in the eye. We show here that the chemokine SDF1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) is an important contributor to this phenomenon. SDF1 is produced by infiltrative monocytes and acts through its cognate receptor to enhance RGC survival, promote optic nerve regeneration, and sensitize subtypes of RGCs that normally fail to respond to a complementary treatment to exhibit robust, long-distance regeneration. These findings establish SDF1 as an important therapeutic candidate for repairing the injured optic nerve.
Douglas VP, Garg I, Douglas KA, Miller JB. Subthreshold Exudative Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV): Presentation of This Uncommon Subtype and Other CNVs in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). J Clin Med 2022;11(8)Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in people over the age of 50 worldwide. Exudative or neovascular AMD is a more severe subset of AMD which is characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Recent advancements in multimodal ophthalmic imaging, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography (OCT-A), have facilitated the detection and characterization of previously undetectable neovascular lesions and have enabled a more refined classification of CNV in exudative as well as nonexudative AMD patients. Subthreshold exudative CNV is a novel subtype of exudative AMD that typically presents asymptomatically with good visual acuity and is characterized by stable persistent or intermittent subretinal fluid (SRF). This review aims to provide an overview of the clinical as well as multimodal imaging characteristics of CNV in AMD, including this new clinical phenotype, and propose effective approaches for management.
Ou J, Lan W, Wu X, Zhao T, Duan B, Yang P, Ren Y, Quan L, Zhao W, Seto D, Chodosh J, Luo Z, Wu J, Zhang Q. Tracking SARS-CoV-2 Omicron diverse spike gene mutations identifies multiple inter-variant recombination events. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022;7(1):138.Abstract
The current pandemic of COVID-19 is fueled by more infectious emergent Omicron variants. Ongoing concerns of emergent variants include possible recombinants, as genome recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism for the emergence and re-emergence of human viral pathogens. In this study, we identified diverse recombination events between two Omicron major subvariants (BA.1 and BA.2) and other variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs), suggesting that co-infection and subsequent genome recombination play important roles in the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Through scanning high-quality completed Omicron spike gene sequences, 18 core mutations of BA.1 (frequency >99%) and 27 core mutations of BA.2 (nine more than BA.1) were identified, of which 15 are specific to Omicron. BA.1 subvariants share nine common amino acid mutations (three more than BA.2) in the spike protein with most VOCs, suggesting a possible recombination origin of Omicron from these VOCs. There are three more Alpha-related mutations in BA.1 than BA.2, and BA.1 is phylogenetically closer to Alpha than other variants. Revertant mutations are found in some dominant mutations (frequency >95%) in the BA.1. Most notably, multiple characteristic amino acid mutations in the Delta spike protein have been also identified in the "Deltacron"-like Omicron Variants isolated since November 11, 2021 in South Africa, which implies the recombination events occurring between the Omicron and Delta variants. Monitoring the evolving SARS-CoV-2 genomes especially for recombination is critically important for recognition of abrupt changes to viral attributes including its epitopes which may call for vaccine modifications.
Elhusseiny AM, Traish AS, Saeed HN, Mantagos IS. Topical cenegermin 0.002% for pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;32(6):3420-3424.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic drops in the management of pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of children under the age of 18 years diagnosed with NK at Boston Children's Hospital/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and treated with topical cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic solution between June 2018 and June 2021 was performed. Data collection included etiology of NK, age at time of initiation of topical cenegermin, laterality, ethnicity, gender, history of previous ocular therapy, pre- and post-therapy best corrected visual acuity, pre- and post-therapy cornea examination, any adverse events from topical cenegermin, associated ocular conditions, and history of ocular surgeries. RESULTS: The current study includes four eyes of four pediatric patients with a mean age of 4.5 ± 2.0 years at the time of initiation of topical cenegermin therapy. The mean time from NK diagnosis until start of topical cenegermin drops was 5.2 ± 4.3 months and mean follow-up time was 15 ± 9.6 months. In all four patients, marked improvement in epitheliopathy was demonstrated after completion of therapy. Best corrected visual acuity was measurable in 3 eyes of 3 patients, and it improved from a mean of 0.07 ± 0.01 to a mean of 0.29 ± 0.26 (P = 0.3). No adverse events related to cenegermin therapy were noted. CONCLUSION: Topical cenegermin was effective in improving corneal healing for pediatric NK.
Huang YY, Hrycaj SM, Chan MP, Stagner AM, Patel RM, Bresler SC. PRAME Expression in Junctional Melanocytic Proliferations of the Conjunctiva: A Potential Biomarker for Primary Acquired Melanosis/Conjunctival Melanocytic Intraepithelial Lesions. Am J Dermatopathol 2022;44(10):734-740.Abstract
ABSTRACT: Conjunctival melanocytic proliferations are diagnostically challenging, often complicated by small specimen size, and are separated into 3 broad categories. The first group includes benign nevi and primary acquired melanosis (PAM) without atypia. The second group includes junctional melanocytic proliferations with a risk of progression to invasive melanoma (PAM with atypia). The last category is conjunctival melanoma, of which 65% of tumors arise in the setting of PAM with atypia. Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) immunohistochemistry has been widely adopted to differentiate cutaneous nevi and melanoma. However, there are limited studies on its utility in the evaluation of conjunctival melanocytic proliferations with little data regarding its potential utility in stratifying PAM. Twenty-eight clinically annotated cases (14 PAM without atypia and 14 PAM with atypia) were retrospectively evaluated with PRAME/MART-1 duplex immunohistochemistry and were assigned the commonly used PRAME immunoreactivity score: 0 for no staining, 1+ for 1%-25% of cells positive, 2+ for 26%-50%, 3+ for 51%-75%, and 4+ for >75%. PAM without atypia showed low (0-3+) PRAME expression in 14 of 14 cases (100%). PAM with atypia showed strong and diffuse (4+) PRAME expression in 12 of 14 cases (86.7%). Seven of eight (87.5%) PAM with severe atypia, 4 of 4 PAM (100%) with moderate atypia, and 1 of 2 PAM (50%) with mild atypia showed 4+ PRAME expression. In addition, all 5 cases that recurred or progressed (all classified as PAM with atypia) showed 4+ PRAME expression. Although additional larger studies are needed, PRAME seems to be a useful adjunct in evaluating junctional melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva.
Kwan J, Ahmed H, Ponsetto MK, Succar T, Chodosh J, Saeed HN. Relationship between Atopic Disease and Acute Ocular and Systemic Outcomes in Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-5.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between history of atopic disease on systemic and ocular manifestations of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with SJS/TEN patients. Those with and without prior atopic diagnosis were compared. RESULTS: In total, 200 patients with SJS/TEN were identified. A total of 23 patients also had an atopic diagnosis. Four, 10, and 18 had atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma respectively. Acute ocular severity was significantly worse in the atopic cohort. No significant differences in overall systemic severity of SJS or mortality were found between the atopic and non-atopic cohorts. Compared to our hospital system's general population, prevalence of an atopic diagnosis was significantly higher in those with SJS/TEN. CONCLUSION: Patients with a history of an atopic diagnosis appear to have more significant acute ocular involvement during their SJS/TEN hospitalization. Atopic conditions appear to occur more frequently in the SJS/TEN population compared to the general population.
Doshi H, Solli E, Elze T, Pasquale LR, Wall M, Kupersmith MJ. Unsupervised Machine Learning Shows Change in Visual Field Loss in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: We previously reported that archetypal analysis (AA), a type of unsupervised machine learning, identified and quantified patterns of visual field (VF) loss in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), referred to as archetypes (ATs). We assessed whether AT weight changes over time are consistent with changes in conventional global indices. We explored whether visual outcome or treatment effects are associated with select ATs and whether AA reveals residual VF defects in eyes deemed "normal" after treatment. DESIGN: Analysis of data collected from a randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: 2,862 VFs taken from 165 participants during the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT). METHODS: We applied a 14-AT model derived from IIHTT VFs. We examined changes in individual AT weights over time within all study eye VFs and evaluated differences between treatment groups. We created an AT Change score to assess overall VF change from baseline. We tested threshold baseline AT weights for association with VF outcome and treatment effect at six months. We determined the abnormal ATs with meaningful weight at outcome for VFs considered "normal" based on a mean deviation (MD) cutoff ≥-2.00 dB. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Individual AT weighting coefficients, MD. RESULTS: AT1 (a normal VF pattern) showed the greatest weight change for all study eyes, increasing from 11.9% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.44-24.1%) at baseline to 31.2% (IQR: 16.0-45.5%) at outcome (p<0.001). AT1 weight change (r=0.795, p<0.001) and a global score of AT change (r=0.988, p<0.001) correlated strongly with MD change. Study eyes with baseline AT2 (a mild diffuse VF loss pattern) weight ≥ 44% (≥1 standard deviation above the mean) showed higher AT2 weights at outcome than those with AT2 < 44% at baseline (p<0.001). Only the latter group showed a significant acetazolamide treatment effect. AA revealed residual VF loss patterns, most frequently representing mild diffuse loss and enlarged blind spot in 64 of 66 study eyes with MD ≥-2.00 dB at outcome. CONCLUSION: AA provides a quantitative approach to monitoring VF changes in IIH. Baseline AT features may be associated with treatment response and VF outcome. AA uncovers residual VF defects not otherwise revealed by MD.
Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Vavvas DG, Miller JW, Miller JB. Short- and Long-Term Visual Outcomes in Patients Receiving Intravitreal Injections: The Impact of the Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19)-Related Lockdown. J Clin Med 2022;11(8)Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the short- and long-term impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on the vision of patients requiring intravitreal injections (IVI) for neovascular Age-related Macular degeneration (nvAMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: This is a retrospective study from the Retina department of three Mass Eye and Ear centers. Charts of patients age of ≥ 18 years with any of the abovementioned diagnoses who had a scheduled appointment anytime between 17 March 2020 until 18 May 2020 (lockdown period in Boston, Massachusetts) were reviewed at baseline (up to 12 weeks before the lockdown), at first available follow-up (=actual f/u) during or after the lockdown period, at 3 months, 6 months, and at last available completed appointment of 2020. Results: A total of 1001 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of those patients, 479 (47.9%) completed their intended f/u appointment, while 522 missed it (canceled and "no show"). The delay in care of those who missed it was 59.15 days [standard deviation (SD) ± 49.6]. In these patients, significant loss of vision was noted at actual f/u [Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in LogMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution)-mean (±SD)-completed: 0.45 (±0.46), missed: 0.53 (±0.55); p = 0.01], which was more prominent in the DR group [Visual acuity (VA) change in LogMAR-mean (±SD); completed: 0.04 (±0.28), missed: 0.18 (±0.44); p = 0.02] and CRVO [completed: -0.06 (±0.27), missed: 0.11 (±0.35); p = &lt;0.001] groups followed by nvAMD [completed: 0.006 (±0.16), missed: 0.06 (±0.27); p = 0.004] and BRVO [completed: -0.02 (±0.1), missed: 0.03 (±0.14); p = 0.02] ones. Overall, a higher percent of people who missed their intended f/u experienced vision loss of more than 15 letters at last f/u compared to those who completed it [missed vs. completed; 13.4% vs. 7.4% in nvAMD (p = 0.72), 7.8% vs. 6.3% in DR (0.84), 15.5% vs. 9.9% in CRVO (p &lt; 0.001) and 9.6% vs. 2% in BRVO (p = 0.48)]. Conclusions: Delay in care of about 8.45 weeks can lead to loss of vision in patients who receive IVI with DR and CRVO patients being more vulnerable in the short-term, whereas in the long-term, CRVO patients followed by the nvAMD patients demonstrating the least vision recovery. BRVO patients were less likely to be affected by the delay in care. Adherence to treatment is key for maintaining and improving visual outcomes in patients who require IVI.
Hall NE, Chang EK, Samuel S, Gupta S, Klug E, Elze T, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Solá-Del Valle D. Risk factors for glaucoma drainage device revision or removal using the IRIS Registry. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To elucidate risk factors for revision or removal of glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) in glaucoma patients in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) patients who underwent GDD insertion between 01/01/2013 and 12/31/2018 were included. Various demographic and clinical factors were collected. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival plots, Cox proportional-hazard models utilizing Firth's Penalized Likelihood (CRFPL), and multivariate linear regression models were used. The main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs) and beta coefficient (β) estimates. RESULTS: 44,330 distinct patients underwent at least one GDD implantation, and 3,354 of these underwent subsequent GDD revision or removal surgery. With failure defined as GDD revision/removal, factors significantly associated with decreased failure included unknown race (HR=0.83; p=0.004) and unknown ethnicity (HR=0.68; p<0.001). Factors associated with increased risk of GDD revision/removal surgery included presence of chronic angle closure glaucoma (HR=1.32; p<0.001) and dry eye disease (HR=1.30; p=0.007). Additionally, factors associated with a decreased average time (in days) to GDD revision/removal included male sex (β=-25.96; p=0.044), unknown race (β=-55.28; p=0.013), and right-eye laterality (β=-38.67; p=0.026). Factors associated with an increased average time to GDD revision/removal included having a history of a past eye procedure (β=104.83; p<0.001) and being an active smoker (β=38.15; p=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The size and scope of the IRIS Registry allows for detection of subtle associations between risk factors and GDD revision or removal surgery. Aforementioned demographic and clinical factors may all have an impact on GDD longevity and can inform the treatment options available for glaucoma patients.

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